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Regardless of whether you want to learn to be a doctor or just want to learn more about the human body, anatomy is an important discipline that talks about the structure of the body. Anatomy is a very informative subject, which is why it often seems difficult to master, especially if you do not have a good curriculum. To make sure that you are going the right way, take notes of what you need to know or repeat, go to the lab and learn the basic anatomical concepts outside the classroom. All this will help you to successfully study this subject and learn more about the structure of man.
Learning the basic part
First of all, let's remember what it is called in Russian - “sternum”, because it is located in the center of the chest. Its Latin name is Sternum, in Russian you will pronounce it as “Sternum”. The sternum is a flat bone that has three main parts. It is these parts that we will learn in the first stage.
We draw a sternum into our notebook (you can simply outline) and sign the most important parts.
The top part is the handle, here it is. In Latin it is called manubrium. Accordingly, you will read it as Manubrium. Sounds like a Harry Potter spell, doesn't it? There is a great association - the sternum is like a sword. The hilt of the sword is the hilt of the sternum, i.e. the manubrium. PS - in the figure on the left the red line should be slightly higher, I climbed a little on the body of the sternum.
Sternum grip, manubrium sterni
The second most important part is the body of the sternum, corpus sterni. I think the word “corps” is familiar to you, dear readers. It is translated from Latin means nothing more than "body". If you ever went to boxing, then you probably heard the expression “punch the body”, which means “hit the body”. “Body” = “torso”. And here is what the body looks like, that is, the body of the sternum:
The sternum body, corpus sterni
The third part is the xiphoid process, processus xiphoideus. Sounds like "Processus Xyphoidus." You don’t have to memorize the word “processus” for a particularly long time, since it will occur to you many more times - processes, and this is how the word is translated, there are several pieces in our body. By the way, the shoots will meet you already in this classification. But with the second word more complicated, it is important not to confuse the whole phrase with other processes - processus transversus, processus zygomaticus, for example.
To remember the word "Xyphoidus", you need to understand that the xiphoid process (processus) is the only one of all processes (processuses), the name of which begins with the letter "X". That is, when it comes time to remember the process of the sternum, start thinking like this - the process, then the processus, then, “X” - means xyphoid, there are no other processes on the “X”.
The xiphoid processus processus xiphoideus
So, the first stage of work with the sternum is finished, we learned the three main parts of this bone, from top to bottom:
- Sternum handle (stubble manubrium),
- Sternum Body (Sternum Corpus),
- The xiphoid process (Xyphoidus processus).
If you have problems remembering these three parts, then it’s better to sketch the contours of the sternum in your notebook and write them down - you cannot move on without knowing these terms.
We add additional knowledge
So, suppose you memorized these three Latin terms and figured out for yourself exactly where they are located on the sternum. Now moving forward From general to specific, consider the formation on the sternum, that is, what we have to tell at the standings, in addition to the three Latin terms that we have already studied. We will move from top to bottom.
On the handle of the clavicle, that is, manubrium sterni, there are several notches. Any tenderloin (and not only on the sternum) we will call incisura. The tenderloin located at the very top of the sternum in the center is the yoke tenderloin, or incisura jagularis (sounds like "Incisura Jagularis"). The yarmine tenderloin is the part of the sternum where the two anterior yarmine veins will pass and connect.
Laterally relative to the yarmine tenderloin, there are two clavicular tenderloins - the right and left. We already add the word “incisura” to the word “curlet”, that is, “collarbone”, and we get incisura clavicularis (pronounce as "Incisura Klyavikularis").
Further, on the xiphoid process, we can see clippings for the edges. Rather, for cartilage, with which the ribs connect to the sternum. Clippings are called incisura costalis ("Incisura Kostalis"), that is, edge clippings. On the xiphoid process there are notches for the first rib, as well as for the upper part of the second rib.
So, on the xiphoid process of the sternum there are five notches - the clavicular notches are located laterally on the top, there is a yoke in the center, and laterally relative to the center we find the notches for the first and upper edges of the second rib. We add this to what we learned a little earlier, that is, to the main parts of the sternum, and move on.
And then we are waiting for the body of the sternum, that is, corpus sterni. On the sternum body, we can also see clippings for the ribs - from the second rib to the sixth, inclusive.
The cutout for the second rib, as we just disassembled, will be half on the handle, and half on the body of the sternum. They will also be called incisurae costales (plural), that is, edge clippings. Each digit is the number of the rib, which is attached with its cartilage to the body of the sternum:
And the last part is the xiphoid process. On it is only half the cut for the seventh rib, but, nevertheless, it is damn important. It is the xiphoid process that will serve as one of the guidelines for propaedeutics. An even more important thing - according to the xiphoid process, the correct position of the arm is determined for conducting a precardial stroke - an emergency resuscitation action.
The essence of the method
So we need to learn some kind of bone. We do the following:
- Be sure to highlight base parts bones. This is usually called, oddly enough, “part” (pars), “surface” (facies), or otherwise. In any case, it is necessary to learn the main parts first. By the way, in our example, the base parts are the grip, the body and the xiphoid process,
- Only after you know the basic structure of the bone in Russian and Latin, add details to each of the parts. This is how we learned the handle, body and xiphoid process, and only then we began to learn small details - clippings on each part. In no case do not change this sequence, otherwise you will have porridge in your head,
- Learn on a single vector. Example - we sorted the sternum precisely in the direction top down (from the handle to the xiphoid process), and both the base parts and parts,
- If there are too many parts, draw. But you should draw and sign in exactly this order - first we draw the general outlines, then - we put the details and sign them,
- Very nice to throw good video on YouTube about your assignment. The Russian-language YouTube is replete with good and even magnificent (many thanks to them for Professor Vladimir Izranov) anatomy lessons,
- At the very end, when you know all the material in Russian and Latin, be sure to tell everything you learned to someone. Your classmate, for example. This simple technique will sort through everything learned and also reveal all the flaws.
3. Get two white coats, a medical cap and anatomical tweezers
Robes should preferably be up to the knee (or slightly higher) and with long sleeves. Although I spent six years with sleeves ¾, and no one said a word to me.
Remember: at the university you are obliged to go in a buttoned-up gown, no matter how you would like to show off with a new sweater with the inscription "YOUTH"
You will be painted after classes. The open coat looks extremely untidy and careless. Immediately speaks of you as a frivolous and infantile person (especially if the dressing gown is dirty and worn over a tracksuit). In addition, a white coat is a very significant symbol of purity and hope. Do not forget about it.
4. Anatomy is your everything
The ancient Roman surgeon and philosopher Galen has the following aphorism: "I often had to drive the hand of surgeons, not very sophisticated in anatomy, and thereby save them from public shame." Anatomy needs to be known (and not only to future surgeons) and constantly repeated. A doctor who does not know anatomy is not a doctor. Teach her from the first lessons, understand her and love. Find the most suitable way for you to memorize and in no case put off until later: before the exam you will have from three to seven days to prepare and believe me, this time will not be enough.
5. There is an opportunity to sleep - sleep
Here, of course, they are telling the truth. Classes at freshmen begin at 8.00 and end at about 17.00, you need to get home, eat, relax and get ready for tomorrow's couples again. Hours in a day are simply not enough. Therefore, if you have finished training early or you have a two-hour break between couples - go to bed.
I know firsthand that medical is the best remedy for insomnia! At school, I could lie in bed until three in the morning without sleep, now my head has not yet had time to touch the pillow - and I am already in the kingdom of Morpheus.
6. If you need help - ask
Nobody ever refused my help, especially undergraduates. Firstly, almost all of them, like me, willingly share their impressions and emotions from studying. They talk about teachers, departments, disciplines, what is better to emphasize, and where you can fool around. Seniors always have a lot of necessary materials for previous courses: from manuals to answers to the test. Do not be shy to ask, the probability that you will be denied tends to zero.
7. Do something else besides studying
It doesn’t matter what: fitness, chess or drawing. Rest, as you know, is a change of activity.
If you sit behind books all the time for six years, it’s not a fact that you will leave the university with a red diploma, but neuroses and spoiled eyesight are surely provided to you
In addition to studying, I also study plastic theater in the theater studio of my university. I managed to travel around with many cities: Moscow, Tula, Kazan, Saratov, Vladivostok, Stavropol, Samara. Theater is a wonderful emotion that inspires me and gives me strength, including to study. Find something that will help you get distracted and stimulate, but do not forget that the absolute primacy in your life is now in your studies.
8. Do not rush to become a professional
If you entered the medical profession with the firm intention to become a first-class surgeon - this is commendable, but this does not mean that from September 2 you should learn to stitch. Everything has its time! Hand over the anatomy first. Then go to the surgical club, such is in every university, take scientific work. After the third year, go on duty, stick to the doctor and ask for surgery, see, read. Everything will be, but gradually.