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Brown widow

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Latrodectus geometricus

Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animals
Type of:Arthropods
Grade:Arachnids
Squad:Spiders
Family:Creepy Spiders
Gender:Black widows
View:Latrodectus geometricus
Latin name Latrodectus geometricus Koch, 1841

Latrodectus geometricus ((lat.)) - a species of spider-web-moths from the genus of black widows. It occurs from the northern United States to Texas with a large predominance in the southwest (in the following regions: Florida, Alabama, Southern Region, Nevada, Louisiana, Mississippi, Georgia, South Carolina, Tennessee, Arizona, New Jersey and Texas). Now also found in the far west and California. Widely distributed in the Middle East, in particular in Israel.

Latrodectus geometricus has a brighter color than Latrodectus mactans, color varies from tan to dark brown, individuals with a dark gray or black color can also be found. It has an hourglass mark on the underside of the abdomen, unlike similar patterns in some other black widows in a brown widow, it is bright orange or yellow. Like all representatives of black widows, this species has a medically significant neurotoxic poison, however, the effectiveness of the poison is minimal for humans and the species has a reputation as the least toxic of all widows.

Due to the small size, the species can also be taken as harmless Steatoda (false widows), however, there is a distinctive characteristic: the hourglass on the abdomen. The easiest way to identify is with a magnifier.

Also a distinctive feature of the species are bags with eggs of a characteristic shape (only one species has a similar shape, except for L. geometricus in L. obscurior) - in the form of balls with spikes.

Brown widow

Brown (brown) widow (Latrodectus geometricus) is the least poisonous spider among its brethren. It lives in the subtropics and tropics, namely in South Florida, Texas, Tennessee, Nevada, Arizona, New Jersey, Louisiana and some regions in southwest North America. Today it can also be found in California and the far west. The brown widow can have a color from yellow-brown to dark brown. Dark gray spiders are also sometimes found. The brown widow has a mark on the abdomen in the form of a yellow or orange hourglass.

The brown widow is the owner of a neurotoxic poison. The poison of the brown widow is weak and it is believed that harm to humans is minimal. But the consequences can be sad. When kept in captivity, the terrarium must be reliably closed. If there are children or pets in the house, it is better to remove the terrarium higher on the rack, and for children to buy toy spiders on the website www.sima-land.ru. A brown widow is not a large spider, due to its small size it is often perceived as a harmless insect and a false widow. But if you look closely, on the bottom of the abdomen you can see the mark.

Some exotic lovers contain brown widows at home. For one spider, you need a small terrarium from 4 to 9 liters. In fact, height is more important than bottom area. At the bottom, lay the mixture in a layer of 2.5 cm: vermiculite, peat moss, sand and humus. It is important that the spider has where to hide, on what to fix and weave its web. For this, small snags, hollow trunks, tubes of small diameter and other suitable trifles are suitable. It is also important to maintain optimal humidity (60-75%) and temperature (23-32 degrees).

Adult brown widows eat crickets and other large insects. And also with pleasure they will eat small cricket, fruit flies and fruit fly. Males with proper care can live from six months to 12 months, females are able to live up to 3 years. Brown widows bite quite rarely, this usually happens if the widow protects her eggs. Of course, its poison is less toxic, less dangerous than the poison of a black widow, but safety should not be neglected. If you pick up the spider, be sure to wear protective gloves. Before the bite, the brown widow gives a signal - clinging to the ground, she turns into a ball. At this moment, you should leave her alone, otherwise there is a great risk of experiencing the effects of her neurotoxic poison.

Spread

The location of the original habitat has not been established. Presumably, it was located in a tropical climate zone, and during the era of the development of navigation it spread throughout the world.

The most common spider is found in the northwestern regions of Africa, North and South America, Asia and Australia. It is widely distributed in the countries of the Mediterranean basin. In Central Europe, a large steatode settles in heated rooms.

There are 2 subspecies. The subspecies Steatoda grossa strandi is distributed in Russia.

A false black widow weaves a web in the form of a three-dimensional ball of sticky silk cobwebs. She has very poor eyesight, so she receives information about the environment based on the fluctuations of her web.

Thanks to them, it determines the presence of a prey caught in the network or the proximity of a predator. In the first case, a large steatode rushes to his hunting trophy, and in the second case he seeks to flee. Activity is most often manifested at night.

The spider is able to cope with prey that exceeds its size.

It has its nets from 1 to 3-4 m long in places inaccessible to large animals, usually in crevices, under stones or close to the surface of the soil. The diet consists mainly of flying insects.

Breeding

The mating season begins in mid-spring. Males have a stridulatory apparatus with which they can make sounds at a frequency of about 1000 Hz. They are obtained due to vibration of the abdomen and friction of the teeth located in the back of the cephalopod carapace.

The sounds made by the males resemble a quiet rustle. They serve to scare off competitors and attract the attention of females. If the beautiful lady liked the melody, then she claps her front paws on the web, and then, in an excited state, rushes to meet her seducer.

The male dies shortly after mating.

A fertilized female lays from 3 to 5 cocoons during a year, which contain from 40 to 100 spherical translucent eggs. In rooms with room temperature, incubation lasts about a month.

All this time, the mother vigilantly guards the masonry. Its poison is enough to kill a mouse, field vole or small rat. Hatched spiders remain under maternal care for several days, and then scatter in different directions.

The body length of males is 4-6 mm, and females 7-10 mm. The color is very variable depending on the environment. It can range from whitish yellow to brown and black. A white and light crescent-shaped pattern is visible on the abdomen. Most populations are dark purplish brown.

In females, in contrast to males, the abdomen is dark, round and swollen. The males are colored lighter, they have more reddish legs.

The life expectancy of a false black widow depends on gender. Females live up to 6 years, and males 12-16 months.

Yellow-spider

This creature belongs to the species Heiracantium, distributed throughout the Earth: from the USA to Japan, on the Australian continent and Eurasia. Inter-gender differences in this species are minimal: individuals do not exceed one and a half centimeters in length and have a nondescript color, so you need to have very sharp eyesight to detect their presence. Funny fact: the smell of gasoline attracts these spiders, they simply adore gas stations and oil refineries. This love caused one incident: in 2011, Mazda had to withdraw more than 50 thousand cars, as yellow-spider spiders chose the exhaust system and did not want to leave the nests.

In addition to the fact that the hierocantium milde (this is what the yellow-spider spiders are called “officially”) cause headaches to automakers, they have a very powerful poison. The spider bite is extremely painful and immediately causes redness and severe swelling. To the great joy of the victims of the bite, an allergy to the poison of this species is extremely rare, and the effect of intoxication passes quickly enough.

False black widow

It is believed that a false black widow appeared in England with a load of fruit in the 70s of the XIX. This species is recognized as the most poisonous in the United Kingdom. To the horror of the British arachnophobes, steatodes (another name for the subspecies) feel at ease there, and thanks to global warming, they multiply at an incredible rate. The bite of the steatode is very palpable. A tumor from an attack of a false black widow can reach the size of a billiard ball.

Professional footballer James Gray was bitten by a steatode on his right forearm in March 2016. Later, the athlete said that at first he did not attach importance to the bite - a small red spot, nothing more. James attributed weakness to overwork from intense training. The cause of the malaise was found out by a sports doctor during a routine examination a few days later. Tissue inflammation began and the player needed hospitalization. The surgeon opened the abscess, and James spent a month in the hospital.

The only death associated with a bite of a false black widow occurred in 2014. Pat Hoff-Irwin died a month after a spider attack. Neighbors, of course, considered these events to be related, and journalists spun the story. Nevertheless, experts argue that there are no substances lethal to humans in the poison of steatodes, but can people be convinced after a series of newspaper publications?

Brown hermit spider

You can easily distinguish this spider by the silhouette of the drawing on the head of the head - it resembles a violin in shape. That is why it is also called the violin spider or the violin spider. However, a really significant difference between this species is that it has only three pairs of eyes (other spiders have four pairs of eyes).

Brown hermit spiders live only in the center and in the south of the USA. Their size does not exceed the size of a penny. But this does not mean that his bite is painless. Fortunately, 90% of bites do not require medical intervention and do not even leave scars.

The remaining 10% included people with high sensitivity to spider venom. And for them, such a meeting can bring significant problems: around the bite with a high probability a blister will appear, severe inflammation and even necrosis will go.

Even worse, inflammation can develop into a purulent wound and gangrene. There were cases when the limb had to be amputated. Treatment takes from one and a half to two months, depending on how quickly the victim seeks medical help.

It sounds creepy, but only two deaths from a bite of spiders of this species were recorded in 2004 and 2014.

Australian widow

This species has become known worldwide thanks to Spider-Man. It was the mutated Australian widow who gave strength to Peter Parker. She is a close relative of the black widow (the resemblance is visible with the naked eye), but is found only on the Australian continent. See the bright red mark on the black matte body? If so, then this is the view in front of you. Females are slightly darker than males, and their size is about a large pea.

Despite the ominous appearance, the Australian widow is quite safe. More than a thousand bites occur annually, but only 250 need to use an antidote. The main symptoms are fever, chills, nausea, and severe burning at the site of the bite. It is safe to say that for a person bitten in a penis in 2014, there was little funny. The name is not communicated for obvious reasons. However, the patient was released from the hospital after several hours of tantrums and transcendental fear for life (on his part, of course).

In 1956, the antidote for widow bites was invented. Since then, there has been only one death related to this type of spider: Jaden Bradley received a bite in April 2016. He spent four days in the hospital and was released after a course of antibiotics. Three days later, Jaden's body was found in his house. Whether the bite was the cause of death is still unknown.

Brazilian wandering spider

There are eight different subspecies of Brazilian wandering spiders. As you might guess, most of them live in Brazil. However, the population spreads throughout Latin America. The length of the body of wandering spiders is about 5 cm, and the length of each foot is from 6 to 8 cm. The main difference between this species and others is that they do not lure prey into the web. Wandering spiders spend most of the day cool, and go hunting at night. They hide and jump on the victim. This makes them one of the most aggressive species of spiders in the world (especially hungry individuals can easily find small birds, lizards and rodents as a suitable lunch).

However, they are not aggressive towards people (like all spiders in this article). Most often, spiders bite a person if they feel in him a threat to themselves or their offspring. And be sure - you do not want to scare the Brazilian wandering spider.

Immediately after a bite, a person feels a strong burning sensation at the wound site. After 30 minutes, the bite increases or decreases the pressure. Nausea, abdominal cramps, vision problems, hypothermia, dizziness, excessive sweating are also symptoms of the bite of this arachnid. There is also a symptom that may be of interest to men: a strong erection for several hours. To rejoice early - it will be very painful (as the victims say, having experienced this on themselves).

A spider of this species was once discovered in a banana package in Leicester, UK. The tabloids rushed to write heartbreaking articles about the attack of poisonous killer spiders that cause men to have prolonged genital activity.

Do not worry: in one bite of a Brazilian wandering spider, there is too little poison to cause severe damage to a person. Recent studies have shown that only 2.6% of cases require the use of an antidote. But in case of a spider attack, in any case, you should seek medical help - at the moment, 10 deaths from a bite of this type of spider have been recorded.

Black Widow

Ask any person about what kind of poisonous spider he knows and you will probably hear - a black widow. It is found everywhere, in shady corners around the world. This is especially true for females: they are one and a half times larger than males (the length of the body is about three centimeters). Their body resembles an hourglass in shape, and on the bottom of the abdomen there is even a red hourglass pattern. Black widows got their name due to the fact that females eat males after mating. You thought that only praying mantises do this?

According to a study by National Geographic magazine, black widow venom is 15 times stronger than rattlesnake venom, so a bite can cause extremely unpleasant consequences. At first, the person feels a sharp pain in the area of ​​the bite. This place quickly turns red and swells. After 15 minutes, the pain waves in waves throughout the body. Convulsions begin, especially strong in the front of the torso. This can lead to panic, shortness of breath and even suffocation.

For adults, a black widow's bite is rarely fatal - only 1% of victims die. However, the poison of this species is extremely toxic for people with weakened immune systems, the elderly and children.

Sydney Leukopautin Spider

There are 43 subspecies of the funnel or leukoputin spider, but they all live only in Australia (the Green Continent was incredibly “lucky” with poisonous living creatures). Funnel spiders got their name from their method of weaving webs: they find moist soil and cover it with a horizontal layer of adhesive threads with a funnel in the middle of the structure. This funnel leads to a shelter or small hole where a spider sits. He waits for the victim to fall into the web and get close to the funnel, where he grabs it and drags it into his lair. This type of web is different from the usual one - it seems like a chaotic pile of weakened and strained threads, but every detail of this mechanism works for a common goal: to grab and make the prey go to the spider for lunch.

Sydney leukopautin spider is the most dangerous representative of the species (especially males). They are widespread within a radius of 120 km from Sydney. The size of an individual is from a centimeter to three. Although there are also large specimens: in the Australian Reptile Park there lives a spider nicknamed "Big Man". The size of his body is 9 centimeters. This giant is used to produce an antidote. And one can understand why: the larger the individual, the more poison it can secrete. And the poison of this subspecies is one of the most powerful in the world. If a Sydney funnel spider had bitten a person in the chest, then death would have occurred within the next 15 minutes. Fortunately, most bites fall on the limbs.

The male venom contains a polypeptide called robustoxin. This substance affects the nervous system of humans and related primates, but is completely harmless to other mammals. From a spider bite, a person can literally start drooling: poison causes profuse salivation and numbness of the corners of the mouth. Tears are also a symptom of a bite. Then comes the second stage of intoxication - difficulty breathing and fainting.

The good thing is that an antidote was invented in 1981, and since then there has not been a single death from a bite of a funnel spider. Prior to that, he was responsible for 13 deaths.

Six-eyed sand spider

This relative of the hermit spider lives only in the deserts of southern Africa. На лапках этих некрупных пауков есть специальные щетинки, с помощью которых особи практически мгновенно могут закопаться в песок. Это является прекрасным способом маскировки. Как только жертва оказывается поблизости, песочный паук выпрыгивает буквально из-под земли и обрушивается на ничего не подозревающую жертву.

No one knows what happens from the bite of spiders of this species, since there is not a single recorded case of an attack on people. But the poison of sand spiders is extremely dangerous for organics: research in the laboratory showed that it contains cryotoxin. This is an extremely powerful substance, similar to sulfuric acid - it simply burns living tissue. Hemorrhage spreads poison throughout the body, reaches the liver and kidneys. And then only death awaits the unfortunate.

Fortunately for us, sand spiders better dig even harder than attack humans. But people should stay away from spiders so as not to become that very first victim.

Spiders, like the idol of millions of people around the world, Spider-Man, are our friendly neighbors. But their extraterrestrial appearance and a truly reasonable look scare people no less than a riot of elements and dark cellars. It is important to remember one thing: spiders are even more afraid of us than we are of them. So maybe you should leave these sweet creatures in their own way and contemplate the beauty of the web against the setting sun?

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