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Exercise is a means of improving performance. The relationship of mental and physical activity?

2. First aid for fractures and tremors.

The practical task.

1. The functional activity of the human body is characterized by various motor processes and the ability to maintain a high level of mental functions when performing intense intellectual (mental) activities. The striated muscles provide heart contraction, body movement in space, eyeball movements, swallowing, breathing, the motor component of speech, facial expressions, etc. Smooth muscles are part of the walls of blood vessels, bronchi, bladder, gall bladder, ureters, gastrointestinal a path, other internal organs, skin. Smooth muscles provide their function and carry out movements of the cilia of intestinal epithelial cells due to the nervous motor system and humoral factors.

Morning exercises harden a person physically, dramatically reduces colds and other diseases, and promotes active labor.

Who does not know how difficult it is sometimes after awakening to relieve morning drowsiness and lethargy. Get involved in the usual rhythm, activate the work of organs and systems of the body, morning gymnastics helps to restore performance.It is necessary in order to make up for the deficit of movements.

When performing physical exercises from sensitive nerve endings located in the muscles, joints, skin, streams of impulses rush to the brain, quickly increasing the excitability of the central nervous system and ensuring its readiness for vigorous activity. The cardiovascular and respiratory system switch to the active operating mode. The current between the tissue fluid is accelerated. Increasing working capacity, labor productivity is perhaps the most important goal of morning exercises, although, of course, is not the only one.

It is proved that systematic physical exercises have a significant positive effect on mental functions, form mental and emotional resistance to the implementation of intense intellectual activity.

The ability to perform mental activity is less affected by unfavorable factors if, in the process of its implementation, the means and methods of physical culture are purposefully applied (for example, physical breaks, outdoor activities, etc.)

The students' school day is full of significant mental and emotional stress. In conjunction with a forced working pause, in which the muscles that hold the body in a certain position are stressed for a considerable time, frequent violations of the rational regime of work and rest, inadequate physical activity can lead to undesirable effects, cause fatigue, which, in turn, can accumulate and turn into overwork. In order to avoid this, one type of activity should be replaced by another, or rest is necessary. The most effective outdoor activities in the form of moderate physical labor or exercise.

In the theory and methodology of physical education, methods of directed influence are developed not only on individual muscle groups, but also on certain systems

organism. However, maintaining the active activity of the human brain requires special approaches, attention, methods of combining physical activity and their targeted impact on the function of the central nervous system.

Physical education classes have different effects on the change in people's mental performance.. Morning exercises, walking or jogging in the fresh air - all these tools have a beneficial effect on the human body, increase muscle tone, improve blood circulation and gas exchange of the body. An important role is played by active vacations during the holidays: after resting in the sports camp, students begin the school year with higher working capacity.

Thus, a person’s working capacity increases the performance of physical exercises, and physical breaks also help to cope with mental fatigue, for example, an indisputable relationship between mental and physical activity is revealed (i.e., without physical workouts and outdoor activities, mental activity and working capacity will be inferior).

2. Concussion sometimes it can go away without serious consequences, but there is always the possibility that it can mask serious complications: cerebral hemorrhage, brain contusion, etc. If you're inyou gothat the victim’s eyes are not focused (eyeballs diverge), his pupils are not the same size, the nasolabial fold is smoothed out and the face asymmetry is visible to the naked eye, and especially if the eyeballs twinkle to the side (nystagmus), then the likelihood of complications is very high .

Therefore, even with the slightest concussion, hospitalization is necessary. A person himself can feel normal and sometimes will try to abandon this.

And if a similar situation happened to any of your friends and acquaintances, you need to try to persuade him to stay in the hospital at least a little. It is better to lie in the hospital for two days than to not be able to walk at all later.

In the meantime, an ice bladder should be placed on the patient’s head, placed on a stretcher and transported to the emergency room.

If you become an eyewitness to an accident in which a person received a fracture, immediately call an ambulance. Doctors will provide first aid, ease the condition of the patient. Inspect the patient before the ambulance arrives. If you suspect a fracture of the spine, it is advisable not to touch the patient, so as not to displace the vertebral discs. If transportation is nevertheless necessary, the patient must be laid belly down on a board covered with something soft. With a fracture of the spine, leg paralysis, urination disorder can occur.

If the spine is not damaged, carefully transfer the patient to a safe place. Inspect the fracture and provide first aid. If there is bleeding, apply a tourniquet using any improvised means (rope, tie), putting some fabric under it. The tourniquet is applied above the site of bleeding, no more than two hours.

The time of applying the tourniquet must be warned by the doctor. Next, the patient needs to immobilize the limb using any improvised materials (tablets or sticks). An impromptu splint is superimposed on two joints, above and below the fracture. If the shoulder or hip joint is injured, the splint should fix the three joints.

After application, the tire is bandaged with pieces of cloth, clothing or any other improvised means. When applying the tire, do not try to connect the broken bones, just fix the limb motionlessly. To avoid tire pressure on the bone protrusions, something soft must be placed under it (cotton, scarves)

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5. Mental performance. Fatigue and its prevention.

A person’s performance is determined by his resistance to various types of fatigue - physical, mental, etc. and is characterized by the duration of the quality of the corresponding work. The mental performance of students, for example, is determined by the success of mastering the learning material. Mental performance largely depends on the state of psychophysiological qualities of students. These include general endurance, including physical endurance, the speed of mental activity, the ability to switch and distribute, concentration and stability of attention, emotional stability.

The state of students' health and their resistance to adverse environmental influences are important for successful professional training.

Fatigue is the physiological state of the body, manifested in a temporary decrease in its performance as a result of the work done.

The leading causes of fatigue are disturbances in the harmonious functioning of organs and systems. Thus, metabolism in the peripheral neuromuscular apparatus is impaired, the activity of enzymatic systems is inhibited, the excitability and conductivity of signals are reduced, biochemical and biophysical changes in the receptive and contractile elements of the muscle structure occur. In the central nervous system, there is a decrease in excitability and a weakening of the excitation of nerve centers due to powerful proprioceptive impulses. In the endocrine system, either hyperfunction with emotional stress, or hyperfunction with prolonged and exhausting muscle work is observed.

Violations in the autonomic respiratory and circulatory systems are associated with a weakening of the contractility of the muscles of the heart and the muscles of the external respiration apparatus. Blood oxygen transport function worsens.

Thus, fatigue is a complex physiological process that begins in the higher parts of the nervous system and extends to other body systems.

Distinguish between subjective and objective signs of fatigue. Fatigue is usually preceded by a feeling of fatigue. Fatigue is a signal warning the body about disorganization in the primary activity of the cerebral cortex. The feelings associated with fatigue include hunger, thirst, pain, etc.

The significance of knowledge of the degree of fatigue in various types of mental labor can be judged from the fact that in every country one in four workers is engaged in mental labor. There are many types of mental labor. They differ in the organization of the labor process, the uniformity of the load, the degree of neuro-emotional stress.

Representatives of mental labor are united in separate groups. There are seven such groups:

Engineers, economists, accountants, office workers, etc. They perform the work mainly according to a previously developed algorithm. The work proceeds in favorable conditions, a slight neuro-emotional stress,

Heads of institutions and enterprises of large and small collectives, teachers of secondary and higher schools. They are characterized by irregular load, the need to make innovative decisions.

Scientists, designers, creative workers, writers, artists. Their work is characterized by the creation of new algorithms, which increases the degree of neuro-emotional stress.

A group of people working with machinery and equipment. The so-called camera work. High concentration of attention, instant response to signals. Different degrees of mental and neuro-emotional stress.

Typesetters, supervisors, collectors, etc. They are characterized by high neuro-emotional stress and local muscle tension.

Medical workers. Their work is associated with great responsibility and high neuro-emotional stress, especially among surgeons and ambulances.

This group includes students and students of various educational institutions. Their work requires memory, attention, thought processes, because they constantly perceive new and abundant information. They are inherent - restriction of motor activity, high tension of the higher parts of the central nervous system, mental and emotional stress.

Inattentive attitude to the feeling of fatigue, which is inherent in the features of mental work, leads to overwork, to overstrain.

Overfatigue is an extreme degree of fatigue already on the verge of pathology. Overwork can be the result of great physical and mental stress. Often fatigue is also caused by an improper lifestyle, insufficient sleep, wrong daily routine, etc. Errors in preparation methods, insufficient rest lead to overwork. In a state of chronic overwork, the body becomes more vulnerable, its resistance to infectious diseases decreases. Thus, if fatigue deepens and is not replaced by protective inhibition, then we can talk about overwork. With skillful redistribution of mental and physical labor, one can achieve high labor productivity and maintain working capacity for many years.

The cyclic nature of excitation and inhibition in the cortical activity of the brain - the “cortical mosaic” - is the cause of the tirelessness of many vital organs in the body. The rhythm of the body's vital activity is the basis of measures to combat overwork. It is necessary to lower the excitability of cortical nerve cells, to increase their sensitivity to irritants. The restoration measures, which will be discussed below, serve these purposes.

With prolonged mental (intellectual) work, as well as with an incorrectly set educational process, with loads exceeding the body's capabilities, a number of conditions can arise, such as: - overstrain and overtraining.

Overvoltage is not only physiological. psychological and biochemical, but also a social phenomenon. Overstrain of the central nervous system, causing a breakdown, can lead to mental disorders, to damage to internal organs. Sometimes the overstrain passes quickly and without a trace when the achievement of the goal brought satisfaction. In cases where the goal is not achieved, a long-term mental disorder may occur, especially insomnia, which may be accompanied by obsessive thoughts. As a result of insomnia and increased emotional arousal, a person has inadequate reactions to the action of others, and his physical condition worsens.

Overtraining is a condition in which an ANS overvoltage acts as a leading sign. those. neurosis. The athlete becomes irritable, touchy, his sleep disturbance. appetite worsens. He is losing weight. Coordination of movements worsens, heart rate changes, blood pressure rises.

The body of an overtrained athlete responds to standard loads with a greater than before reaction:

heart rate increases

blood pressure rises

pulmonary ventilation worsens, oxygen debt increases.

In severe cases of overtraining, sports immediately stop for 2-3 weeks. The cause of overtraining is not only excessive, but also frequent monotonous training, as well as violations of the training regimen.

The use of excessive physical and mental stress, non-observance of the daily regimen and nutrition can lead to various diseases. In many ways, pathological disorders result from a decrease in immunobiological activity. In a state of high athletic form, an athlete often gets a cold, gets sick with flu, tonsillitis, etc. Obviously, the high fitness associated with the use of heavy loads, and mental stress before responsible competitions, reduce immunobiological reactivity, which leads to a decrease in the body's resistance to external influences.

Such disorders reduce performance, and this causes a feeling of dissatisfaction with oneself, which further enhances emotional stress, which leads to impaired functions of the cardiovascular system - hypertension, coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis.

Creative mental work proceeds against the background of positive emotions. Executive mental work. which dispatchers, operators are occupied with, is most often accompanied by negative emotions (the reason is emergency situations, a breakdown in work, etc.).

With negative emotions in the blood, the amount of adrenaline increases, due to an increase in acetylcholine, which is involved in the transmission of nervous tension in the central nervous system, which leads to a narrowing of the vessels that feed the heart. With frequent negative emotions, the heart is primarily affected.

Under the influence of adrenaline, the rhythm of the heart increases, which is associated with a large expenditure of energy, while the delivery of nutrients and oxygen to the heart is limited.

Note that with any mental work, no matter how difficult it is, there is no increase in blood sugar, but the number of leukocytes in the blood decreases.

One of the most unfavorable aspects of mental activity is a decrease in physical activity. В условиях ограниченной двигательной активности изменение сердечной деятельности, возникающие под влиянием интеллектуального напряженного труда, сохраняются дольше, чем в условиях нормальной двигательной активности

Напряженная умственная работа (как показывают исследования) сопровождается непроизвольным сокращением и напряжением скелетных мышц. not directly related to the performance of mental work.

Simultaneously with an increase in skeletal muscle activity, an increase in the activity of internal organs is noted in most people - respiration and cardiac activity increase, blood pressure rises. the functions of the digestive organs are inhibited.

Most of all during mental work the mental functions of a person change - attention and memory. A tired person has poor concentration. Long-term training load increases fatigue and can cause a number of adverse changes in the body.

Numerous studies show that physical education and sports can have an extremely effective effect on performance factors and counteract premature onset of fatigue. To improve performance during the school day, it is advisable to use the so-called forms of physical education - physical breaks - i.e. performing physical exercises in between classes.

It is difficult for a modern person to keep up with the requirements of scientific and technological progress, to cope with the flow of information even in the narrow field of his professional activity, which to a large extent applies to students of higher educational institutions. For most of them, work in a specialty is associated with a significant decrease in physical activity and an increase in neuro-emotional stress (accuracy, speed, attention). The combination of the body’s overstrain and growth of neuro-emotional stress in the conditions of intensification of production leads to premature fatigue in production activities, to early disability.

To avoid this, you must constantly work on yourself, study the characteristics of your body, learn to use your latent abilities, lead a healthy lifestyle, systematically use the means of physical culture.

1. Train your memory

The part of the brain that responds most to aerobic exercise is the hippocampus. Well-controlled experiments among children, adults and the elderly show that it increases in size with improved physical fitness. Since the hippocampus is the main element of the learning and memory system, this discovery partly explains the effect of improving memory while strengthening the cardiovascular system.

In addition to slowly increasing memory on your hard drive, exercise can have a direct impact on memory formation. German researchers have shown that walking or cycling while, but not before training, helps to better absorb and memorize new foreign words. Therefore, exercise while studying. But do not overdo it: intensive training can increase stress and adversely affect the ability to remember.

2. Increase concentration

In addition to improving memory, exercise can help you better concentrate on the task. The most convincing from a scientific point of view look studies conducted with schoolchildren, but most likely, the same applies to all ages.

Classes with 20-minute breaks for aerobic exercise improved concentration in Dutch students. Meanwhile, a large randomized controlled trial in the United States examined the effects of daily exercise after school during the school year. Naturally, the physical condition of the children has improved. Less predictable was an increase in self-control. Children became less distracted by external stimuli, were able to perform several tasks at once, and also improved their skills in remembering and using information.

And if all this seems like hard work, in order to take advantage of the exercises of attention training, you won’t even have to hold your breath. Only 10 minutes of playing exercises to develop concentration, for example, hitting the ball with the floor at the same time with two hands, improved the concentration of attention of a large group of German teenagers.

3. Improve mental health

Whether you like it or not, physical activity can have a profound effect on mood. The runner's euphoria - the feeling of delight that comes after prolonged and intense exertion - is absolutely real. Even mice experience it. However, it may not be due to "endorphin fever." The levels of opiates produced by the body increase in the bloodstream, but it is unclear how many endorphins actually enter the brain. At the same time, recent evidence indicates a pleasant and painkiller stimulation of the endocannabinoid system: the psychoactive cannabis receptor.

What about yoga? Does it help with stress? When an alarm occurs, the voltage level rises, the heart rate accelerates and the concentration of attention decreases. The body’s response to stress, called “hit or run,” is automatic, but this does not mean that it cannot be controlled at all.

Yoga teaches the control of movement and breathing in order to enable the mode of "relaxation" of the body. There is more and more scientific evidence of the benefits of yoga. For example, in a 2010 study, participants did yoga and meditation daily for 8 weeks. In addition to reducing stress, brain scans showed a decrease in the size of the amygdala, an area of ​​the brain that plays a large role in stress, fear, and anxiety.

Exercise also seems like a promising way to deal with depression. A 2013 meta-analysis allowed us to draw cautious conclusions that exercise — aerobic and resistance — was “moderately effective” in resolving symptoms of depression. Exercises proved to be as effective as antidepressants and psychological treatments, but the authors of the study believe that this area requires more careful study.

4. Develop creative thinking.

Thoreau, Nietzsche and many other creative people claimed that walking “inspires” the imagination. Last year, psychologists proved this statement experimentally. Walking, whether on a treadmill or around the Stanford University campus, improves divergent thinking, that is, the ability to find many solutions to the same problem. True, it has no effect on convergent thinking. Therefore, if you are struggling to find one single solution, an easy walk is unlikely to help you with this.

5. Stop cognitive decline

Particularly convincing is the evidence that maintaining physical fitness contributes to brain health in old age. The most obvious is the relationship between aerobic exercise and the preservation of cognitive abilities.

Training should not be extreme: 30-45 minutes of brisk walking, three times a week, can help prevent depletion of mental health and delay the onset of senile dementia.

Accustom your body to regular training, and the results will not be long in coming. The effect will be noticeable even before the first signs of an age-related decline in cognitive abilities appear.

The benefits are not limited to strengthening the lungs and heart. Exercises to improve coordination and flexibility had a clearly positive effect on brain structure and cognitive function in a large group of older people in Germany. And strength training twice a week gives a visible effect on the nervous system. Dancing can also have a restorative effect on an aging brain. Just one hour of dancing per week for six months did not particularly increase the aerobic stamina of older participants, but physical activity and interaction with other people contributed to spiritual well-being.

Researchers are still trying to identify the most important factors due to which physical exercise has such a powerful tonic effect on the brain. Among the most likely are called increased blood flow to the brain, bursts of growth hormones and the expansion of the network of blood vessels in the brain. It is also possible that exercise stimulates the formation of new neurons. Until recently, few believed that this could happen in the brain of an adult.

6. Do not sit still

The effect of exercise on cognitive abilities reminds us that the brain does not work separately from the whole organism. Everything that you do with your body is reflected in mental abilities. Sitting on the pope for days on end is dangerous. So do not think too much about the types of exercise. Choose what you like and just do it.

Author: neuroscientist and writer Ben Martinoga

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