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In medicine, a blood test is one of the most important places among laboratory diagnostic procedures. A blood test helps to determine the presence of inflammatory processes and pathologies, to identify various disorders in the hematopoiesis, and also to assess the state of human health in general.
A general clinical blood test is the most common analysis and includes determining the concentration of hemoglobin, the number of leukocytes and counting the leukocyte formula, determining the number of red blood cells, platelets, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and other indicators. A general blood test provides information about infectious, inflammatory processes in the body, allows you to identify viral and bacterial diseases, possible helminth infections and allergies. Decryption of a blood test in pregnant women helps to detect possible problems during pregnancy in time.
Deciphering a blood test online will help you pre-decrypt your analysis before visiting a doctor, understand the indicators of a blood test, decrypt a blood test of a child, find out the reference values (norms) of indicators for adults and children. Decryption of a blood test during pregnancy: special analysis standards for pregnant women, general results for several indicators (blood test transcript in children, blood test of a baby transcript, blood test in children, blood test normal, blood test pregnancy transcript, blood tests during pregnancy, transcript of a blood test in pregnant womenduring pregnancy)
Currently, most indicators are performed on automatic hematological analyzers, which are able to simultaneously determine from 5 to 24 parameters. The main ones are the number of leukocytes, the concentration of hemoglobin, hematocrit, the number of red blood cells, the average volume of the red blood cell, the average concentration of hemoglobin in the red blood cell, the average content of hemoglobin in the red blood cell, the half-width of the size distribution of red blood cells, the number of platelets, and the average platelet volume.
- Wbc (white blood cells - white blood cells) - absolute leukocyte count (norm 4-9 10 9 < displaystyle 10 ^ <9>> cells / liter) - blood cells - responsible for the recognition and neutralization of foreign components, the body's immune defense against viruses and bacteria, elimination of dying cells of your own body.
- Rbc (red blood cells - red blood cells) - the absolute content of red blood cells (norm 4.3-5.5 10 12 < displaystyle 10 ^ <12>> cells / liter) - blood cells - containing hemoglobin, transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide .
- Hgb (Hb, hemoglobin) - the concentration of hemoglobin in whole blood (normal 120-140 g / l). For analysis, a cyanide complex or non-sterilizing reagents are used (as a substitute for toxic cyanide). Measured in moles or grams per liter or deciliter.
- HCT (hematocrit) - hematocrit (norm 0.39-0.49), part (% = l / l) of the total blood volume, which falls on the formed blood elements. Blood 40–45% consists of uniform elements (red blood cells, platelets, white blood cells) and 60–55% of plasma. Hematocrit is the ratio of the volume of shaped elements to blood plasma. It is believed that the hematocrit reflects the ratio of the volume of red blood cells to the volume of blood plasma, since mainly red blood cells make up the volume of blood cells. The hematocrit depends on the amount of RBC and the value of MCV and corresponds to the product of RBC * MCV.
- Plt (platelets - blood platelets) - absolute platelet count (norm 150-400 10 9 < displaystyle 10 ^ <9>> cells / l) - blood cells - involved in hemostasis.
Erythrocyte indices (MCV, MCH, MCHC):
- Mcv - the average volume of an erythrocyte in cubic micrometers (microns) or femtoliters (fl) (norm 80-95 fl). In old analyzes indicated: microcytosis, normocytosis, macrocytosis.
- Mch - the average hemoglobin content in a single erythrocyte in absolute units (norm 27–31 pg), proportional to the ratio “hemoglobin / number of red blood cells”. Color indicator of blood in old analyzes. CPU = MCH * 0.03
- Mchc - the average concentration of hemoglobin in the erythrocyte mass, and not in whole blood (see above HGB) (norm 300-380 g / l, reflects the degree of saturation of the red blood cell with hemoglobin. A decrease in MCHC is observed in diseases with impaired hemoglobin synthesis. Nevertheless, this is the most stable hematological indicator Any inaccuracy associated with the determination of hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, leads to an increase in MCHC, therefore this parameter is used as an indicator of the error of the device or the error made in preparing the sample for the study.
Platelet Indices (MPV, PDW, PCT):
- MPV (mean platelet volume) - average platelet volume (norm 7-10 fl).
- PDW - the relative width of the distribution of platelets by volume, an indicator of platelet heterogeneity.
- PCT (platelet crit) - thrombocrit (norm 0.108-0.282), the proportion (%) of the volume of whole blood occupied by platelets.
- LYM% (LY%) (lymphocyte) - relative (%) content (normal 25-40%) of lymphocytes.
- LYM # (LY #) (lymphocyte) - absolute content (norm 1.2-3.0x 10 9 < displaystyle 10 ^ <9>> / l (or 1.2-3.0 x 10 3 < displaystyle 10 ^ <3>> / μl)) lymphocytes.
- MXD% (M> 10 9 < displaystyle 10 ^ <9>> / l) of monocytes, basophils and eosinophils.
- NEUT% (NE%) (neutrophils) - relative (%) neutrophil content.
- NEUT # (NE #) (neutrophils) - absolute neutrophil content.
- MON% (MO%) (monocyte) - relative (%) monocyte content (normal 4–11%).
- MON # (MO #) (monocyte) - the absolute content of monocytes (norm 0.1-0.6 10 9 < displaystyle 10 ^ <9>> cells / l).
- EO% - relative (%) content of eosinophils.
- EO # - absolute content of eosinophils.
- BA% - relative (%) content of basophils.
- BA # - absolute content of basophils.
- IMM% - relative (%) content of immature granulocytes.
- IMM # - absolute content of immature granulocytes.
- ATL% - relative (%) content of atypical lymphocytes.
- ATL # - absolute content of atypical lymphocytes.
- GR% (GRAN%) - relative (%) content (norm 47–72%) of granulocytes.
- GR # (GRAN #) - absolute content (norm 1.2-6.8 x 10 9 < displaystyle 10 ^ <9>> / l (or 1.2-6.8 x 10 3 < displaystyle 10 ^ <3>> / μl) ) granulocytes.
- HCT / RBC - the average volume of red blood cells.
- Hgb / rbc - the average hemoglobin content in the red blood cell.
- HGB / HCT - the average concentration of hemoglobin in the red blood cell.
- RDW - Red cell Distribution Width - “erythrocyte distribution width” so-called “erythrocyte anisocytosis” - an indicator of red blood cell heterogeneity, calculated as the coefficient of variation of the average volume of red blood cells.
- RDW-SD - the relative width of the distribution of red blood cells in volume, standard deviation.
- RDW-CV - the relative width of the distribution of red blood cells in volume, coefficient of variation.
- P-LCR - coefficient of large platelets.
- ESR (ESR) (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) is a non-specific indicator of the pathological condition of the body.
As a rule, automatic hematological analyzers also build histograms for red blood cells, platelets and white blood cells.
Hemoglobin (Hb, Hgb) in a blood test is the main component of red blood cells that transports oxygen to organs and tissues. For analysis, a cyanide complex or non-sterilizing reagents are used (as a substitute for toxic cyanide). Measured in moles or grams per liter or deciliter. Its definition has not only diagnostic, but also prognostic value, since pathological conditions leading to a decrease in hemoglobin content lead to oxygen starvation of tissues.
Normal hemoglobin in the blood:
- men - 135-160 g / l (gigamol per liter),
- women - 120-140 g / l.
An increase in hemoglobin is noted with:
- primary and secondary erythremia,
- dehydration (false effect due to blood concentration),
- excessive smoking (the formation of functionally inactive HbCO).
A decrease in hemoglobin is detected with:
- hyperhydration (false effect due to hemodilution - “dilution” of blood, increase in plasma volume relative to the volume of the set of uniform elements).
Red blood cells
Red blood cells (E) in a blood test - red blood cells that are involved in the transport of oxygen into tissues and support biological oxidation processes in the body.
Normal red blood cell count:
An increase (erythrocytosis) in the number of red blood cells occurs when:
- dropsy of the renal pelvis,
- the effects of corticosteroids,
- illness and Cushing's syndrome,
- True polycythemia disease,
- steroid treatment.
A small relative increase in the number of red blood cells may be due to blood clotting due to burns, diarrhea, and diuretics.
A decrease in red blood cell count is observed with:
- blood loss
- hydremia (intravenous administration of a large amount of fluid, i.e. infusion therapy)
- with the outflow of tissue fluid into the bloodstream with a decrease in edema (therapy with diuretics).
- decrease in the intensity of the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow,
- accelerated destruction of red blood cells,
White blood cells (L) - blood cells formed in the bone marrow and lymph nodes. There are 5 types of leukocytes: granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils), monocytes and lymphocytes. The main function of leukocytes is to protect the body from foreign antigens (including microorganisms, tumor cells, the effect also manifests itself in the direction of the graft cells).
Normal white blood cell count: (4-9) x 10 9 < displaystyle 10 ^ <9>> / l
An increase (leukocytosis) happens with:
- acute inflammatory processes
- purulent processes, sepsis,
- many infectious diseases of viral, bacterial, fungal and other etiologies,
- malignant neoplasms,
- tissue injuries
- myocardial infarction
- during pregnancy (last trimester),
- after childbirth - during the period of breastfeeding,
- after heavy physical exertion (physiological leukocytosis).
To reduce (leukopenia) leads:
- aplasia, bone marrow hypoplasia,
- exposure to ionizing radiation, radiation sickness,
- typhoid fever,
- viral diseases
- anaphylactic shock,
- Addison-Birmer disease,
- under the influence of certain drugs (sulfonamides and some antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, thyreostatics, antiepileptic drugs, antispasmodic oral drugs),
- bone marrow damage with chemicals, drugs,
- hypersplenism (primary, secondary),
- acute leukemia
- myelodysplastic syndromes,
- bone marrow metastases,
- pernicious anemia,
- typhoid and paratyphoid,
White blood cell count
Leukocyte formula (leukogram) - the percentage of different types of white blood cells, determined by counting them in a stained blood smear under a microscope.
In addition to the leukocyte indices listed above, leukocyte or hematologic indices are also calculated, calculated as the ratio of the percentage of different types of leukocytes, for example, the ratio of lymphocytes and monocytes, the ratio of eosinophils and lymphocytes, etc.
Color Index (CPU) - the degree of saturation of red blood cells with hemoglobin:
- 0.85-1.05 - the norm,
- less than 0.80 - hypochromic anemia,
- 0.80-1.05 - red blood cells are considered normochromic,
- more than 1.10 - hyperchromic anemia.
In pathological conditions, a parallel and approximately the same decrease in the number of red blood cells and hemoglobin is noted.
A decrease in CPU (0.50-0.70) occurs when:
- iron deficiency anemia,
- anemia caused by lead intoxication.
An increase in CPU (1.10 or more) happens when:
- vitamin B12 deficiency in the body,
- folic acid deficiency
- polyposis of the stomach.
For a correct assessment of the color index, it is necessary to take into account not only the number of red blood cells, but also their volume.
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a non-specific indicator of the pathological condition of the body. Fine:
- newborns - 0-2 mm / h,
- children under 6 years old - 12-17 mm / h,
- men up to 60 years old - up to 8 mm / h,
- women under 60 years old - up to 12 mm / h,
- men over 60 years old - up to 15 mm / h,
- women over 60 years old - up to 20 mm / h.
An increase in ESR occurs with:
- infectious and inflammatory disease
- damage to the kidneys, liver, endocrine disorders,
- pregnancy, the postpartum period, menstruation,
- bone fractures
- surgical interventions
- oncological diseases.
It can also increase under physiological conditions such as eating (up to 25 mm / h), pregnancy (up to 45 mm / h).
A decrease in ESR occurs when:
- increased levels of bile acids,
- chronic circulatory failure,
Causes of hemoglobin increase
- Dehydration (decreased fluid intake, excessive sweating, impaired renal function, diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, profuse vomiting or diarrhea, diuretics)
- Congenital heart or lung defects
- Pulmonary insufficiency or heart failure
- Kidney disease (renal artery stenosis, benign kidney tumors)
- Hematopoietic diseases (erythremia)
Causes of Red Blood Cell ReductionReduced red blood cell count is called anemia. There are many reasons for the development of this condition, and they are not always associated with the hematopoietic system.
- Errors in nutrition (food poor in vitamins and protein)
- Blood loss
- Leukemia (diseases of the hematopoietic system)
- Hereditary fermentopathies (defects in enzymes that are involved in hematopoiesis)
- Hemolysis (death of blood cells as a result of exposure to toxic substances and autoimmune lesions)
The reasons for the increase in the number of red blood cells
- Dehydration (vomiting, diarrhea, excessive sweating, decreased fluid intake)
- Erythremia (diseases of the hematopoietic system)
- Diseases of the cardiovascular or pulmonary system that lead to respiratory and heart failure
- Renal artery stenosis
General blood counts
A general blood test (which is as familiar to many of us as a clinical one) is taken from the blood of a finger or vein. The study of such biological material is carried out in the morning on an empty stomach, or during the day, but on condition that the person did not eat and did not drink 2 hours before blood sampling.
In different laboratories, the forms, tables of results may vary, but the normal indicators themselves are always the same. This article will present indicators of the Russian standard, which are found in most public and private medical institutions.
An adult can simply read the results of a general blood test, because each form has a column where it is customary to indicate a standard norm indicator, and a graph of individual results. Just compare them. But! Most people, when they see that the result is different from the norm, start to panic. This cannot be done, because there are a lot of reasons for such phenomena, for example, increased hemoglobin is found in people who drink little water, or an increased number of white blood cells is often found in those involved in sports or fitness due to physical exertion. And those who smoke or take oral contraceptives may have lower hemoglobin and increased platelet count. Those. these are also normal options. Therefore, it is so important to go to the hospital with the results of the research so that the interpretation and evaluation of the indicators is carried out by a qualified specialist. People with medical education know the designation of each analysis, and therefore they know how to "read" them correctly, taking into account all factors.
So, we bring to your attention: table of indicators KLA (general blood test).
|RBC (red blood cells), red blood cells||Red blood cells. They show how well the cells “breathe”.||For women - 3.5-5x pieces per 1 liter. |
For men, 4.5-5x pieces per 1 liter.
Below the norm - anemia, lack of oxygen.
Above the norm - too thick blood, the risk of clogging of blood vessels.
|HGB (Hb), hemoglobin||Hemoglobin transports oxygen to the cells.||For women 120-160 g / l. During pregnancy or menstruation, 110-120 is permissible. |
For men - 130-170 g / l.
Below the norm - anemia, lack of oxygen.
Above the norm - an increased number of red blood cells.
|HCT, hematocrit||The ratio of red and white bodies in the blood (percentage of red).||For women - 0.36-0.46%. |
For men - 0.41-0.53%.
Above the norm - blood clotting.
Below normal is anemia.
|PLT (platelets), platelets||Platelets are responsible for blood coagulation.||For women and men the same - 180-360 x 109 per liter. |
Above the norm - varicose veins, thrombosis.
Below the norm - problems in the hematopoietic system.
|L, WBC (white blood cells), white blood cells.||White blood cells provide immune defense.||For women and men the same - 4-9 x 109 per liter. |
Above the norm - inflammation, viruses, bacteria, fungi, blood loss.
Below the norm - some viral diseases.
|ESR, ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate||Indirect indicator of the inflammatory process.||For women - 12-20 mm / h, depending on age. |
For men - 8-15 mm / h, depending on age.
Above the norm - possible inflammation.
Below the norm is a rare case.
Показатели биохимического анализа крови
Биохимический анализ крови намного сложнее, и назначается он при подозрении на какое-либо заболевание. Также врачи рекомендуют его сдавать в качестве профилактического анализа при комплексном обследовании организма. Данный вид анализа показывает, насколько хорошо работают органы – печень, поджелудочная железа, почки, сердце и т.д. Blood is taken only from a vein 6-12 hours after a meal, i.e. optimal blood sampling in the morning on an empty stomach. Here you also need to consider individual characteristics. For example, an increased content of urea can be found after playing sports.
Table of indicators of a biochemical blood test.
|Blood sugar (glucose)||All carbohydrates eventually turn into glucose and enter the bloodstream. According to how quickly glucose leaves the blood, thanks to the hormone insulin, we can judge some pathologies.||For women and men the same is 3.3-6.1 mm / l. |
Below normal - hypoglycemia due to hunger, diet, exercise.
Above the norm - diabetes.
|Urea||In the process of protein digestion, ammonia is formed, which absorbs urea and excretes through the kidneys.||For women and men the same - 2.5-8.3 mm / l. |
Below normal - pregnancy, lactation, protein deficiency.
Above the norm is renal failure.
|Creatinine||The product of protein metabolism in complex with urea. Shows the work of the kidneys.||For women - 53-97 micromol / l. |
For men - 62-115 micromol / l.
Above normal levels are hyperthyroidism or renal failure.
Below normal - fasting, vegetarianism, taking corticosteroids.
|OH - total cholesterol, LDL - low density lipoprotein, HDL - high density lipoprotein.||Fat level. LDL shows the risk of developing atherosclerosis, HDL - cleanses blood vessels.||LDL: |
For women - 1.92-4.51 mmol / L.
For men - 2.25-4.82 mmol / l.
For women - 0.86-2.28 mmol / l.
For men - 0.7-1.73 mmol / l.
Any abnormalities indicate problems with CVD or liver.
|TG, triglycerides||The level of their content may indicate the presence of atherosclerosis or indicate a risk of obesity.||For women - 0.41-2.96 mmol / l. |
For men - 0.5-3.7 mmol / l.
Above the norm - thrombosis, hepatitis, pancreatitis, CCC diseases.
Below the norm - hyperthyroidism, trauma, chronic lung disease.
|Total (OB), direct (PB) and indirect bilirubin (NB)||Bilirubin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin, forms bile, and therefore must respond and demonstrate the quality of the liver.||ABOUT - 3.4-17.1 μmol / L. |
PB - 0-3.4 μmol / L.
Above the norm - liver problems.
Below normal - hypobilirubinemia.
In addition to the indicators presented in the table, the following may also occur:
- Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, ALAT) and aspartameminotransferase (AST, ALAT) - these are markers of the liver and heart, the indicators of which are the same: in men - up to 41 units / liter, in women - up to 31 units / liter. Elevated AST levels indicate liver problems, elevated ALT levels indicate heart problems.
- Amylase and lipase - pancreatic enzymes. Amylase is responsible for the digestion of carbohydrates, lipase - fats. The norm of amylase is 28-100 U / L, lipase - 0-190 U / L. If the indicators are overestimated, this indicates inflammatory processes in the pancreas, or its damage.
- Alkaline phosphatase - a marker of the liver, biliary tract, bone condition. For women, the norm is up to 240 units / liter, for men - up to 270 units / liter. Overestimated or underestimated indicators of this marker indicate many pathologies: liver, thyroid, menopause, calcium deficiency, excess vitamin C, etc.
How to recognize an infection by a blood test?
To determine the exact diagnosis in cases of suspected infections of various kinds, inflammation, acidification of the body, oncology, a general blood test with a white blood cell count must be taken. The results will indicate the following indicators:
- Neutrophils. Cells that kill toxins and bacteria. Normally, healthy people make up 47-78%. Increased indicators indicate inflammatory processes, infections. And if the body contains a reduced number of cells, this indicates the presence of viruses, fungus, chronic infection, protozoa, like toxoplasmosis.
- Lymphocytes Probably, these are the main regulators of human immunity. Normally, they make up 19-37%. Any infections, as well as some conditions of the body, for example, menstruation increase this indicator. With immunodeficiency and taking corticosteroid drugs, the indicator is greatly underestimated.
- Granulocytes. This group also separately includes: eosinophils, monocytes and basophils. The norm for eosinophils is 0.5-5.0%. Allergies, asthma, taking antibiotics, helminths increase the rate. Monocytes normally make up 3-11%. The increased content indicates sexually transmitted diseases, protozoa infections, and tuberculosis. Basophils normally make up 0-1%. The increased content indicates allergies, inflammatory processes in the digestive tract, hormonal disorders.