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A concussion is a shaking of the brain inside the cranium as a result of a blow to the head. This type of head injury is the most common. Concussion can occur as a result of a car accident, sports injury, falling, violent shaking of the head or upper body. Although a concussion is most often a temporary disorder without permanent effects, it can lead to serious concomitant problems if it is not treated promptly and properly.
Symptoms of a concussion
The possibility of a head injury is signaled:
- Strong headache. Even if there were no damaged skin during an impact or a fall, there are no wounds and abrasions on the skin, there is still discomfort. It’s like the brain pulsates inside the cranium, and the damaged structures of the nerve tissue begin to disintegrate, causing intoxication,
- coordination problems, loss in space. A part of the brain such as the cerebellum is responsible for our balance. With a concussion, the relationship between different parts of the organ and the vestibular apparatus inside the auditory canal is disturbed. Therefore, it’s difficult for a person to stand upright, take a step,
- dizziness. It’s like a man on a carousel: walls, asphalt, floor are spinning. In this state, he may fall, cripple even more,
- fog before the eyes, ringing in the ears. After a bruise of 100%, temporary disturbances in the work of the organs of hearing, vision, touch,
- nausea— a classic of most headaches
- fainting. Sometimes in a deep shutdown a person can be up to 5 minutes.
These symptoms give the right to suspect a person has a concussion. But only doctors can establish an accurate diagnosis.
(Video: “Concussion: symptoms, diagnosis, treatment”)
Who is more likely to get such a common injury? The risk zone includes: extreme sports enthusiasts, athletes, children, elderly people with hypertension. The latter may feel dizzy at any moment, fall and shake.
Types of condition
Doctors distinguish several options for this traumatic brain injury:
- 1st degree - violation of mindfulness, confusion in thoughts, but without amnesia,
- 2nd degree - confusion, short-term memory loss,
- 3rd degree - Long-term memory loss, complications, severe headaches and disorientation.
For domestic neuropathologists, loss of consciousness is the main indicator of the severity of a condition when a head is struck. American colleagues, when making a diagnosis, rely more on data from MRI and other diagnostic methods.
(Video: “Concussion: symptoms, consequences and treatment”)
First aid for a concussion at home
First aid for traumatic brain injury is carried out according to the principle of “cold-hunger-rest”. Before the ambulance arrives, try to:
- provide fresh air, unfasten the collar, remove the belt. If the person is in outerwear, then unzip it. Do not be afraid that it will freeze. The main thing to bring to feelings
- do not move a person. Ideally lay it on a flat surface. In this case, the head should be above the body. If the incident happened on the street, put a roll of clothes under your head. Use a pillow at home,
- put something cold on the patient’s head. Frozen foods from the refrigerator or a bottle of mineral water from the store will do. Apply to the place of impact,
- if there is a bleeding wound on your head, then bandage it. Try to stop the blood with improvised means: a handkerchief, a scarf,
- do not give the patient to eat or drink. This will provoke vomiting. If a person is thirsty, it is better to moisten his lips with water or let him rinse his mouth with water.
What to do if a person is unconscious? The main thing is not to panic. Put the patient on his right side. While bending the left arm and leg at an angle of 90 degrees. Turn your head toward the ground. Simple manipulations will prevent the entry of vomit into the respiratory tract, retention of the tongue and strangulation.
Immediately upon the arrival of the doctors, try to explain to them all the nuances and details of the incident. This will help to accurately establish the diagnosis and begin to provide qualified assistance.
A person with suspected injuries is taken to the hospital, diagnosed (MRI and X-ray). Depending on the complexity of the condition, the age of the patient is placed in a daytime or regular hospital. After receiving the diagnostic data, treatment of the patient begins.
Therapy consists of:
- bed rest. The patient spends the first day in bed. And then within 14 days refuses any physical or mental activity. They remove the TV from the room, make a dim light so that there are no annoying factors,
- painkillers. Popular are analgin, sedalgin, maksigan,
- sedatives. Especially often they are used for problems with sleep or increased irritability. Doctors use herbal extracts of motherwort, valerian, phenobarbital, sibazole, nozepam.
In addition to drugs, multivitamin complexes are used to correct the condition of a patient with concussion. It is also recommended to use tonic herbal extracts of lemongrass, ginseng. It is very useful for traumatic brain injuries to take an extract of gingko biloba. The plant activates the regeneration of brain cells, improves blood circulation in all structures of the organ. Good reviews have fees with red clover. The flower establishes the work of the brain, removes spasms and dizziness.
(Video: “What happens with a concussion”)
If necessary, the patient is additionally given diuretics. They make sure that people drink plenty of water and juices, but refuse strong coffee, tea or energy drinks. Also, smokers are prohibited from smoking at least for the duration of their recovery (2-3 weeks). Nicotine reduces the ability to absorb oxygen by cells of the nervous tissue. And he is so needed for regeneration.
For a quick recovery, a positive attitude and adherence to the doctor's recommendations are important. Also take into account that the next brain contusion will be more difficult.
Possible complications after a concussion
Unfortunately, in some people the condition does not pass without a trace. The most common are:
- Character change. A person becomes sharply aggressive, withdrawn. This is a cause for panic among relatives and the cause of discomfort for the victim himself.
- Persistent headache. A man complains of a feeling of squeezing of the skull in the temple area.
- Memory loss. Doctors distinguish retrograde and anterograde amnesia. Sometimes the memory for certain details or events may not return.
It is interesting: in preschool children with a concussion, there is no amnesia.
In this case, there is no loss of consciousness, a slight disorientation in space, headache attacks and a feeling of dizziness are possible. When talking, you can establish confusion.
A loud sound or bright light becomes irritable and unpleasant. Nausea may occur the first time after injury. Then the general condition of the patient is normalized.
There may be a slight increase in body temperature within 38 degrees.
Not characterized by loss of consciousness. There is a headache and dizziness, disorientation. The pain is pulsating and spreads to the back of the head. There is a violation of the pulse, both in the direction of acceleration and deceleration.
Such a concussion is characterized by pain when moving the eyes, difficulty in focusing, pupils may be inadequately dilated or narrowed. For this degree of concussion, the duration of the above symptoms is more than 20 minutes.
The patient may experience short-term memory lows, most often the victim cannot reproduce the last few minutes before the injury.
It is characterized by loss of consciousness, which can last from a few seconds to several minutes. The degree of injury is determined by the time of unconsciousness, the extreme form is coma. When the patient regains consciousness, memory loss is observed: the patient does not remember what happened before the concussion, may not recognize others.
According to the time period that “falls out” of the patient’s memory, a conclusion is made about the degree of concussion. Symptoms may persist for a long time, the restoration of a normal state occurs after 2 weeks.
These symptoms are subjective in nature and can occur in different people with different strengths and not manifest at all. Therefore, the diagnosis of concussion is quite problematic. In addition, in the absence of symptoms, the possibility of injury to the bones of the skull as a concomitant injury may be underestimated.
Concussion in children
A large mass of victims of concussion are children. A high level of injuries is explained by a large motor activity, restlessness, curiosity of kids. Therefore, the question of what to do with a concussion in children is extremely relevant.
Children under the age of one year during a concussion behave uneasily, cry and act up, fainting is almost not observed, pallor of the skin, bouts of vomiting, regurgitation are possible. Older children are more likely to lose consciousness, may complain of a headache after an injury.
The peculiarity of children's tremors is that immediately after the injury, the child may not feel any symptoms, behave as usual, but after a while a sharp deterioration occurs.
Even with the normal health of the child and the absence of complaints after the injury, serious brain damage is not ruled out. therefore first aid for concussion in a child is a mandatory emergency call. In the conditions of a medical institution, a neurosurgeon and a neuropathologist will be examined by doctors to give an opinion and decide on further therapeutic or even surgical measures.
Among the main examinations, skull radiography, neurosonography, echo-encephalography will be performed, and other diagnostic studies may be prescribed.
What it is?
Mild concussion is characterized by a short-term malfunction of the central nervous system, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, severe headache, all of which can be caused by serious bruises or head injuries.
Not a single person is safe from such an injury. It can be easily obtained in everyday conditions in the event of a fall or simple careless movement, in an accident, during sporting events, in hazardous working conditions, etc. Such situations are much more likely to occur in the cold period of time on the street, due to the fact that people slip banally on ice. Therefore, it is important to know what to do with a mild concussion, not only during the period of need, but simply for first aid.
With a concussion, cellular metabolism is disturbed, blood vessels are damaged, a gray matter nutrition failure occurs, hemorrhage may develop.
There are 3 main degrees of concussion. In the event of a head injury or if a slight concussion is suspected, all possible symptoms should be compared.
The stages of mild concussion can be characterized as follows:
- At the first degree, a slight fainting occurs, the condition returns to normal within 20-30 minutes.
- With the second degree of concussion, disorientation in space occurs for a while.
- At grade 3, there is a loss of consciousness for a short period. Usually the victim does not remember what happened to him.
Characteristic symptoms may not appear immediately, but after a day or for quite a long time, perhaps even a week.
With any manifestation of concussion of the victim, it is false to examine the doctor. An inexperienced person may mistake a concussion for a bruise, and this can aggravate the situation. Even the slightest trauma can cause a hematoma.
In the stage of mild concussion, the following symptoms may be observed:
- short-term loss of consciousness or blurred reason,
- blood from the nose
- a sharp increase in temperature
- mental and motor inhibition,
- incoherent speech
- disorientation in space,
- nausea, vomiting,
- lack of appetite,
- poor concentration
- sleep disturbance,
- loss of coordination
- pupil resizing
External obvious signs include pallor, sweating, bodily harm.
As a rule, after a short period of time, it becomes clear that the injury requires treatment. After the examination, the doctor reports whether treatment for a mild concussion is possible at home, or whether it is necessary to go to the hospital. In any case, specialist advice is necessary.
In addition to the main signs of mild concussion, some clinical manifestations can be observed:
- Eye pain in bright light.
- Visual impairment. The victim blurry sees the environment and people.
- Bifurcation of objects in the eyes.
- Cold hands.
- Short-term amnesia.
- Throbbing headache.
- Sleepy state.
In young children, symptoms such as:
- unstable walking
- fast fatiguability,
- indifference to games,
Experienced professionals should monitor the condition of the victim, so it would be better if they put him in a hospital.
But if, after the examination, the doctors allowed the victim to be treated at home, it is necessary to protect him from devices that create noise (TV, radio, computer). Also, he is categorically not recommended to engage in reading and physical activity.
In this case, bed rest must be observed. Nothing should interfere with a relaxing rest and prolonged sleep. It is also recommended to take sedatives and herbal infusions with the permission of a doctor. In addition, it is necessary to follow a plant diet with a lack of salt.
After such a case, caution should not be neglected. First of all, you should avoid traumatic situations, take care of your head, wear a helmet when riding a bicycle or scooter, observe safety measures in cars, in the house, arrange furniture in such a way that there is no way to bump or stumble.
The main drugs for mild concussion in adults are drugs such as:
- amino acids.
What medications for mild concussion are prescribed for children? Here are some of them:
- "Phenozepam" (for sedative purposes),
- "Sedalgin", "Baralgin" (painkillers),
- Cerucal (elimination of nausea)
To restore the nervous system and support brain cell nutrition:
To strengthen blood vessels and normalize metabolism:
To reduce edema and intracranial pressure:
To eliminate dizziness and nausea:
They help to cope with insomnia and relieve stress:
And you should also take B vitamins.
Along with taking the basic medicines prescribed by the doctor, they often resort to traditional medicine recipes. During rehabilitation, it is very useful to use aloe vera juice, which helps to restore normal condition. Ginseng, a string and a saberfish are also recommended for use. The pharmacy will be able to advise a set of medicinal herbs, as well as help a mild concussion. What to do with these fees? Brew and consume broth inside.
With light tremors, a special infusion helps. To do this, you need only 10 g of thyme. It should be poured with boiling water and brought to 95 degrees, but without boiling. Next, cool the grass and strain. You need to take 100 ml before meals for several months.
With a concussion (ICD 10 code S06.0), the following distinguishing features may appear:
- weakness of the whole organism
- eye pain
- breath change
- heart rate variability
- memory loss,
- sudden excitability
- an attack of sudden aggression
- violation of logical thinking,
- sharp emotional changes.
In severe cases, concussion, bleeding from the ears and nose can be observed. Despite such a serious condition, concussion is the easiest injury with a closed head injury.
The consequences of such an injury are not comforting, it can cause severe complications and lead to hematoma, stroke, edema, depending on the severity.Here, in the obligatory case, the victim must be hospitalized. The severity of the concussion, symptoms and treatment should be clarified by medical personnel.
What to do with a light concussion during rehabilitation?
The main recommendation is to observe the daily routine. In order for your health to recover as quickly as possible, you must observe bed rest for at least 5 days. You should take a sick leave for 12-14 days to fully return to normal.
Many are interested in whether it is possible to walk with a mild concussion? At first, of course, it is undesirable, and it is best to do this in the presence of loved ones, to be always in sight. Movement should be minimal, only to meet important needs.
You can listen to music, but not with headphones. Also, at first, you should abandon entertainment that have a strong effect on the eyes. It is necessary to exclude a mobile phone, video games and watching TV.
During this period, it is strongly recommended not to be exposed to emotional stress. You can not worry, be nervous, participate in lengthy conversations, enter into conflicts.
The room should have dim lights and covered windows if sunlight interferes.
If all the recommendations are followed, the well-being will begin to improve after 2-3 days. Even if the victim returned to normal after a short time, he needs to rest in bed for at least 5-7 days.
The effects of a mild concussion
If you do not carry out a full treatment, then the victim may be accompanied by regular depressive states, causeless anxiety, systematic headaches. He may suffer from decreased concentration and complain of decreased memory.
With the slightest improvement in well-being, people can immediately begin their daily duties, some activity or return to work. It is important to understand that even a mild concussion can occur later, but already in the form of various physical ailments.
The consequences are fraught with sleep disturbance and complicated psycho-emotional states. Often reduced vision, there is a decrease in mental activity and many other negative disorders, accompanied by chronic irritability.
Now you know what to do with a light concussion, how to help yourself or another victim.