You need to wash your hands, observing the rules dictated by the need:
- thoroughly soap both hands and rub them against each other for 30 seconds (no less), then wash all soap thoroughly as well,
- the water must be warm and must be running,
- it’s good to rinse and wash the tap after washing, on which the microbes left when it is opened can live up to 72 hours,
- hands must be well dried or wiped completely with a disposable (or personal) towel or napkin.
WHO experts advise using this method of washing your hands: soap your palms, rub against each other, cross your fingers in the form of a “lock”, distributing soap between all membranes, both on the inside and back of the palms. Thoroughly rub the bend of the thumbs of both hands, rub your fingers on the palms. This method allows you to kill as many microbes as possible in hard to reach areas of the palms. This method is quite effective, even if part of the instruction is ignored.
When hands are most dangerous
Human hands are multifunctional, we do everything with them, we take care of everything, therefore they pose an increased risk of infection with harmful microorganisms. But, if you learn to wash your hands with soap without fail, the risk of getting sick (even with low immunity) will greatly decrease:
- before eating,
- when we go from the street to the room,
- after visiting places where there are a lot of people (public transport, clubs, cafes and others),
- after a hospital or clinic (you need to wash it as soon as possible, before doing this without touching your hands to your face),
- after contact with a person who has signs of illness.
A few more “healthy” tips
1. While on the street, in society, working (before washing hands), try to touch your eyes and mouth with your hands as little as possible so as not to bring bacteria into these most vulnerable “gates into the body”.
2. Coughing, sneezing, use a handkerchief, or rather a paper handkerchief, a napkin that you need to immediately throw in the bin.
3. Be careful with close contact, when greeting, kisses. Avoid or take protective measures in contact with a sick person.
Symptoms and treatment of influenza in adults, children and pregnant women
Viruses appeared on the planet long before man, and as soon as our distant ancestors had settled around their fires, they hastened to keep them company. Man turned out to be an exceptionally pleasant neighbor, friend and home to these mysterious biological entities.
The body, of course, was indignant at such familiarity, was blown up by a cascade of immune reactions, and bit by lymphocytes. Ugly behaved with guests, in a word. The joy of viruses at all times is that immunity, despite its excellent memory, can be fooled.
One of the most successful participants in the catch me if you can game is the flu virus. Globalization has given the virus ample opportunities for travel, development and personal growth. In the modern world, seasonal flu epidemics annually cause the death of hundreds of thousands of people. WHO has recognized influenza as one of the most dangerous infectious diseases along with HIV, malaria and hepatitis B.
The virus carefully mutates, mutates, which forces scientists to annually develop new vaccines against the intruder. The guest is transmitted by airborne droplets, from person to person and is characterized by the development of the following symptoms:
- Temperature. Most often, a figure is found on the thermometer, more impressive than 37.5 ° C, which is more likely for colds. At 38.5 ° C, the body affected by the influenza virus is more suitable.
- Muscle pain. Sometimes any touch becomes unpleasant, it seems that the skin hurts.
- After a few hours, cough, nasal congestion, and mild sore throat may join.
- Weakness, chills, palpitations, loss of appetite.
How to avoid infection?
- No wonder all Soviet cartoons and fairy tales teach children to wash their hands. The likelihood of infection is reduced by 30-50% with strict observance of the rules of personal hygiene. The virus does not know how to fly, it only plans for the mucous membrane, but for this it is necessary that the sick person comes closer and sneezes at the candidate for the sick. Most often, with our own hands we help the flu to get to the mucous membranes and develop our sabotage activities. Therefore, it is important to try not to touch the eyes and face in public places. Carry antibacterial wipes or gel with you and treat your hands after traveling in public transport before eating on the street, wiping glasses, etc.
- Since it is the mucous membranes that are the platform from which the infection begins to travel through the body, it will not be amiss to rinse the nose and gargle with saline. For example, 0.5–1 teaspoon of sea salt per glass of warm water perfectly replaces popular products in the form of drops and sprays, and costs about 1000 times cheaper.
- Medical masks. If you are already sick, refrain from visiting public places, take pity on those around you, among whom are likely to be babies, pregnant women, the elderly (up to 90% of seasonal flu deaths occur in those over 65), as well as those who suffer from bronchopulmonary diseases and various immunodeficiencies. Everyone will be grateful to you: from doctors to neighbors.
If circumstances are unfavorable to you, and you have to go outside, put on a mask. It’s better to change it often enough and be in it less, so it’s better to postpone the six-hour meeting.
As for those who purchase masks for preventive purposes, then if you are caring for a sick person, the mask is absolutely necessary for you. A better solution would be a multi-layer (8 layers) gauze mask. Imagine a surgeon standing at the operating table. This is what you should look like. Now you can find extremely comfortable models in which you can breathe quite easily.
However, all these measures are far from a panacea. What to do? We have come close to the topic of seasonal flu vaccination.
Scientists have been working on creating a flu vaccine since 1937, when for the first time it was possible to establish the ability of the virus to multiply in the cells of a chicken embryo. Modern vaccines contain strains or their antigens (small particles of the virus, causing a weak immune response) of three topical viruses, which are determined by a special WHO committee in February each year.
What is the essence of vaccination? Into the body are introduced: weakened virus, individual particles of the viral envelope (for example, Vaksigripp, Fluariks) or only surface antigens (H and N) of influenza viruses, which provides sufficient information and preparation of immunity to collision with the pathogen and a minimum of undesirable reactions for the introduction of a vaccine. Thus, the immune system pre-studies the character and habits of the enemy, forms an arsenal, mentally prepares and reflects the attack much more successfully. Even if a person becomes ill, he tolerates it much easier and avoids the complications that the flu is especially dangerous.
Vaccination should be carried out against the background of relative well-being and health. Minor colds are not a contraindication. You should not get vaccinated if you are already sick, if the epidemic is in full swing. The issue of vaccinating pregnant women is dealt with in different ways, depending on the country of residence. At the moment, there is no data proving the danger and undesirability of these measures for pregnant women.
The most common vaccine-related complications are:
- Redness and soreness at the injection site, which independently disappear after 1-2 days.
- Slight fever, muscle pain, headache. Symptoms are mild and disappear without special treatment after 1-2 days.
Is it worth it?
Employers who are interested in maintaining profit by reducing the incidence of their employees often put pressure to force a specialist to vaccinate without his will. Among vaccinees, the incidence of influenza during epidemics is lower from 3 to 12 times compared with those who refused this kind of prophylaxis. The risk of getting ARI is also reduced by about half. Each dollar invested in vaccination brings up to $ 11 profit.
However, all this does not justify managers using illegal means and pressure against their employees. If the conscience of your boss does not bother, remind him that his request is contrary to international and Russian legislation in the field of human rights and the patient. Thus, the Federal Law "On the immunoprophylaxis of infectious diseases" in Article 5.1 guarantees the right of citizens to refuse preventive vaccinations. Articles 32 and 33 of the "Fundamentals of the legislation of the Russian Federation on the protection of public health" indicate consent to medical intervention and the right to refuse medical intervention. In addition, you have the right to independently choose a medical institution and, of course, you can refuse to vaccinate at the workplace.
The same goes for children. Vaccination will be offered in schools and kindergartens. You can agree or refuse, do it yourself in the medical institution you trust, or not at all.
Flu treatment. How to survive the disease with the least loss
- Tell your friends, place an ad at the entrance to the office, use the 25th frame technology to spread the following axiom: flu and any other viral infection cannot be treated with antibiotics. Never.
- If a bacterial infection joins a viral infection, for example, pneumonia, the doctor and only the doctor prescribe an antibiotic, which must be drunk in those doses and for as long as the doctor prescribed. You don’t need to grow bacteria resistant to this group of antibiotics in yourself.
- Drink plenty of fluids even if you are not thirsty. Unsweetened fruit drinks, vegetable juices and mineral water will be an excellent choice. Drinking plenty of fluids helps relieve symptoms of intoxication, such as muscle aches and headaches.
- To reduce the temperature, use ibuprofen and paracetamol preparations, it is better to remove aspirin away. It is not necessary to achieve normalization of temperature, it is enough to reduce it to 37.5-38 ° С.
- For adults only. Please do not call an ambulance, even if the temperature approaches 40, you have no appetite, but there is a cough and weakness. Invite a local GP or family doctor for VHI policy. SARS of any origin, including influenza, is not a reason to call service 03. But if there are severe chest pain or shortness of breath, blue lips and nasolabial triangle, vomiting, severe signs of dehydration, cramps, confusion or loss of consciousness, seek help immediately.
And now the good news! Even in the absence of any kind of prophylaxis, not everyone gets sick during annual epidemics. Some people are generally immune to influenza, many of those who have crossed the 40-year milestone have had similar strains and are partially immune to the new, and the vast majority of those affected are mild and may not even notice that they have suffered from the flu. In addition, the virus, although it mutates, does not do so radically so as not to allow immunity, including acquired immunity, not to recognize the offender at all. That is why many people do not get sick seriously every year, and last year's vaccines work on new strains.