Paving slabs are appreciated for their practicality, high strength, durability, resistance to moisture and temperature changes. It does not emit substances harmful to humans when heated, like an asphalt coating. The variety of shapes, sizes, colors and textures of the road building material is amazing. By combining different types of products, you can create beautiful coatings. Laying paving slabs requires strict implementation of all construction rules. If the paving technology is broken, the coating is quickly destroyed.
Types of pavement tiles
It can be vibrocast and vibropressed. Products differ in manufacturing technology. Vibro cast elements are created by tamping the solution on a vibrating table. In the manufacture of a vibropressed product, the mixture is subjected to pressure with vibration. Vibro-pressed products have higher strength. Tiles are made from concrete mix and clay. Granite screenings and plasticizers are added to the composition. The most durable is granite tiles. It is made of natural granite.
Products can be diamond-shaped, hexagonal, rectangular, square and wedge-shaped. The figured material “Wave” (with wavy edges), “Clover” (with semicircular ledges) and “Bone” (resembles a coil) is popular. There are many ways to lay diamond-shaped tiles (hexagons, snowflakes, stars). From rhombs, you can create a coating with a 3D effect.
To create garden paths near cottages and country houses, 40 mm thick vibrocast tiles are purchased. Vibro-pressed products can be laid on roads with heavy loads (squares, sidewalks). They must have a thickness of at least 60 mm. If you plan to lay on the street on the roadway, it is better to use granite tiles. The heavy traffic of light vehicles can withstand material 70-80 mm thick. If trucks drive along the road, the coating thickness should be 100 mm.
Before buying, you need to evaluate the quality of the tiles. On its surface there should be no holes, notches and dents. When tapping tiles, a clear sound should appear. If the sound is dull, you must refuse to purchase the goods. You should not buy brightly colored products, as well as those in which there are voids. To assess the density of the material, you need to ask him to break. You need to find out how smooth the surface of the product is. If the paving slabs are laid on the table at all angles, it lies flat and does not swing, it is of high quality.
Before purchasing paving slabs, you must choose a laying option. On straight and even sections, it is easiest to perform a linear pattern. This technology of laying paving slabs is the simplest. It allows you to save material.
The linear layout can be horizontal, vertical, straight or with a shift. When the rows are shifted, the coating pattern resembles brickwork. If you use products of different shades, you can get the effect of "caterpillar tracks." Rows of tiles are sometimes placed at an angle to the track line. This styling is called diagonal.
If a diagonal-angular layout pattern is used, a herringbone or braid pattern is formed. To lay the "Christmas tree", the rows of tiles are placed at an angle of 45 ° to the line of the track. The “Braid” is paved, alternating horizontal and vertical laying. The diagonal-angled circuit is highly durable. It visually reduces space.
Tiles can be laid in modules of 2-3 elements. Combining 2 colors, create a chess pattern. If you use elements of different sizes and shades, you get an original chaotic pattern. On the territory adjacent to the house, the spiral layout looks beautiful. To create decorative circles, you need to purchase material with wedge-shaped elements. Art layout is made of products of different shapes and colors. When choosing methods for laying tiles, it is necessary to take into account the design of architectural buildings and home gardens.
Necessary materials and tools
To complete the installation, you need to purchase tools:
- Bayonet and shovel shovels for excavation.
- Rake to level the surface of bulk materials.
- Stakes and rope for marking the site.
- Rubber mallet for leveling the material (wooden mallet with rubber head).
- Building level (1.5-2 m).
- Brush or broom.
- Rubber spatula.
- Flat bar for leveling the surface of the layers.
- A grinder (a disk with a diamond dusting).
- Scrap to perform the dismantling of paving slabs.
It is necessary to prepare borders, sand, gravel (fractions 10-20, 20-50) or gravel, plaster mix or cement (M400, M500). To strengthen the foundation of the coating, you will need a reinforcing grill with cells of 10x10 or 8x8 cm. A styling machine will help create a coating over a large area.
Marking future tracks
To properly lay out the tiles yourself, you first need to do the markup. You need to start work near a building, fence or gate. Near the structure you need to score 2 pegs. The distance between them should correspond to the width of the track. It is better to adjust the width of the coating to the size of the product so that you do not have to cut the material. Since the structure will be supported by borders, it is necessary to leave space for them (10 cm on each side). The other 2 pegs are scored near another building. Between the pegs pull 2 ropes.
Laying street tiles in a large area is carried out after its division into lanes 1-1.5 m wide. If the road has bends, it is divided into small sections. The markup of each site is done separately.
Earthworks and protective layer
The volume of earthwork depends on the type of soil. If the soil is dense and clayy, it is enough to remove a layer with a thickness of 15-20 cm to remove the roots of plants. When the soil is loose, it is necessary to remove a layer 30-35 cm thick. If you plan laying paving slabs in the winter, you need to prepare the paving trench before the cold.
Sand is poured onto the surface of the trench. Sand is tamped with soil. To prevent plant seeds remaining in the soil from germinating and not destroying the coating, a non-woven fabric is laid at the bottom of the trench. Strips of material should overlap each other by 15-20 cm.
Correct laying of tiles does not guarantee the durability of the coating. Ground and rain waters gradually wash out particles of sand and soil, destroying the base of the road. So that moisture does not spoil the coating, it is necessary to make a drainage layer.
At the bottom of the trench, pour gravel. The layer thickness should be 15-18 cm. Rubble should be well tamped and leveled. A thin layer of sand is poured on top and also leveled, on which a non-woven fabric is laid. Care must be taken to ensure that water flows to the edges of the path. To do this, make transverse and longitudinal slopes. Pillow for paving slabs is performed at the last stage of preparatory work.
Placement of fencing borders
The curb is laid immediately after the work on the drainage device. It is better to use a ready-made piece border made of concrete. Curb blocks are installed near a vertical cut of soil along the edges of the road. It is desirable that the upper edge of the curb is 1-2 cm above the soil level. Otherwise, the tracks will be constantly dirty.
Curb blocks are fixed with concrete mortar. After laying the curb, you need to check how smooth it is. To do this, use the building level. If some blocks are not installed correctly, their position is adjusted with a wooden mallet.
Applicable types of substrates
Before you lay out the site with tiles, you need to make a base. The underlying layer helps level the surface of the plot. It gives stability to the coating and increases its strength. A reliable foundation does not allow the sidewalk to collapse under the weight of people and cars. It protects the coating from destruction in the autumn-winter period, when ice forms in its gaps.
The technology of laying paving slabs depends on the method of operation of the pavement. If the load on its surface is small (pedestrian path), it is enough to make the underlying layer, consisting of sand and cement. If paving is carried out under the car, a concrete base is required.
Before concreting the bases, reinforcement works are performed. The reinforcing mesh is laid on metal or stone supports. The fittings should be 3-5 cm above the surface of the trench. The pavement for paving slabs is prepared from sand and cement in a ratio of 3: 1. It is better to use river or quarry washed sand. It should not have particles of clay or lime. The solution is evenly and carefully distributed over the area of the trench to achieve a smooth surface.
It is better to immediately pour concrete over the entire track. If part of the work is postponed the next day, the area filled with concrete must be covered with polyethylene. The concrete base under the paving slabs should have a thickness of 10-12 cm. To make the cement pillow strong, it is moistened for 3-5 days. After wetting, the concrete is covered with polyethylene. You can lay the coating in 7-12 days.
Made of sand and cement
The trench is filled with a mixture of sand and cement. It is prepared in a ratio of 3: 1. The thickness of the sand-cement base should be 12-15 cm. The underlying layer must be well compacted and leveled. If the depth of the trench is too large, it can be reduced with sand. Sand is poured under the base and carefully tamped.
The technology of paving paving slabs requires that the cement-sand mixture be dry. Therefore, it is better to make a foundation immediately before paving in dry weather. The cement-sand layer must be laid on geotextiles. If this is not done, the sand will quickly wash out and the tile will sag.
Tile processing before laying
Before installation, the tile must be treated with a hydrophobic solution. The tool will increase the frost and moisture resistance of the material, as well as increase its life. Water repellents improve decorative qualities and protect against fungal microorganisms. Salt spots do not appear on the surface treated with a hydrophobic solution. The material is immersed in a hydrophobic composition, then dried. The procedure is repeated.
During processing, you need to carefully inspect all elements. Defective products must be postponed. When you need to cut paving slabs to make corners, defective elements will come in handy.
Laying work must be carried out under suitable weather conditions. The weather should be dry and calm. Do not lay the coating on a sand-cement base at sub-zero temperatures. When freezing, the soil expands, and after thawing, it sags. If you lay the coating on frozen soil, after thawing it will collapse. The rules for laying paving slabs allow you to perform work on a concrete base during frost, but this is undesirable.
Paving slabs on a concrete base are fixed with cement mortar. The seams are completely filled with the mixture. At the same time, the thickness of the seams should not exceed 3 mm. When laying elements, you need to be on the floor. You cannot step on the ground. After laying each row, you need to check the quality of the work performed by the building level. Items that are not properly stacked are leveled with a rubber mallet.
It is necessary to lay on a cement-sand base, driving each element with a wooden mallet. The material must be firmly fixed in the base. If the product “falls through”, a layer of sand should be poured under it. The gaps between the tiles are filled with a mixture or sand. After completing work, the coating is moistened from a hose with a spray gun. If the mixture “sags” in the gaps, you need to pour a little more mixture into them. You can use the coating after 2-3 days.
Paving of seams of paving slabs is carried out with the help of sand, cement or concrete mix. If sand is used, it must first be sieved. The cement mixture is prepared from cement and sand in a ratio of 1: 5. In the preparation of the concrete mixture, cement is mixed with sand in a ratio of 1: 3. Sand and mix should be dry. Grouting is carried out using a rubber spatula. The level of the mixture in the gaps should be from 1/2 to 3/4 of the tile height. Excess mixture is swept away from the broom.
After that, they begin to fill the seams. When the mixture hardens (after 1-3 days), pour the mixture into the gaps and moisten it again. After the composition has dried, the procedure is repeated for the third time. It may be necessary to add the mixture to the seams several more times. You can finish work when the mixture in the gaps is at the same level with the surface of the tile.
Advantages and disadvantages of finishing material
Paving slabs have number of advantages:
- Resistance to temperature extremes, which provides them with a wide range of applications in various climatic zones.
- This is a natural, environmentally friendly product that does not cause allergies. It does not contain harmful impurities, does not emit toxic substances into the atmosphere.
- Immunity to UV rays. Paving stones are strong and strong, do not melt in the sun.
- Ease of styling. It can be laid by a person who is far from construction.
- There are no puddles on the pavement, rainwater goes into the gaps between the tiles.
- A variety of shapes, colors, sizes of paving stones is a material for the development of creativity. Variations of patterns, geometric shapes will help to create interesting compositions on a personal plot.
- The photo of the laid paving slabs around the private house pleases and delights the people around, makes you want to make the same in your personal plot.
- During frosts it is covered with a layer of ice.
- If installed incorrectly, the possibility of subsidence.
According to the manufacturing method
Depending on the manufacturing methods of the paversThe following varieties are found:
Let us dwell on the characteristics of each separately.
Vibrocast tile use on personal plots of cottages, in the country for laying out paths.
Plastic formulations are poured into a special container - vibroform.
Such paving stones imitate brickwork, a cut of wood and stone.
Vibropressed Tile made in a different way.
Concrete mortar, poured into the mold, experiences the pressure of a vibrating press.
A rough coating promotes adhesion with car spikes, shoe soles.
It is convenient to walk on roads, bridges, squares that are covered with this type of material, because the surface of the coating does not slip. The sidewalk is sturdy, withstands pressure from crowds, heavy vehicles.
The strongest is considered granite paving.
This natural stone is able to withstand fluctuations in temperature, humidity, and is resistant to mechanical damage.
The term of operation is more than 25 years.
There is alsopavingof which it is made.
- Polymer (plastic)
The most popular and cheapest concrete.
Its disadvantage is the formation of cement dust during operation.
Clay more expensive, reminiscent of shingles.
It is durable due to the addition of granite chips or other binding material.
Rubber made of shredded car tires, which include elastic, wear-resistant rubber.
It is waterproof. You won’t slip on this surface even in rainy weather.
It has a soft and durable base, has shock absorbing properties.
It is frost-resistant, even in the most severe frost it does not crumble.
Polymer paving slabs are shockproof, it is almost impossible to break, withstands significant mechanical stresses.
Sand, polymer raw materials and coloring pigment are mixed, heated and pressed under pressure.
It is resistant to abrasion, does not form cement dust.
It can be washed, while it does not absorb water, it is frost-resistant. Plastic tiles can be easily disassembled and reassembled during repair. It has oil and gas resistance, it is not affected by an aggressive environment.
Using this pavers, you can create a variety of compositions from different color and geometric combinations.
How to lay paving tiles beautifully
To properly lay the paving slabs, you need to decide what it is for and where we will lay it.
Depending on whether it is a pedestrian walkway in the country or parking for cars, a playground or something else, the type of pavers, its size, color, shape, depends.
Paving stones on the carriageway should be 8-10 cm thick. 6 cm is enough for a car to enter the courtyard of a private house. The thickness of the pedestrian zone is 3-4cm.
If the sidewalk will be laid in the country or in the courtyard of a private house, then it is necessary that it fits into the landscape design.
Choosing the types of sidewalk, you need to get acquainted with their technical characteristics, qualities and properties. You need to find out if the paving stones are strong enough to support the weight of the car or whether it can only bear the weight of a person.
How to lay paving tiles yourself step by step
- Прежде чем мостить участок брусчаткой, нужно определить размер участка, начертить чертеж в уменьшенном масштабе.
- Нужно сделать разметку площадки. Участок, необходимый для укладки, обнести колышками. Между первыми двумя натяните капроновую нить.
- Use the level to determine if this line is horizontal.
- Place the third peg above the first two. Tie a thread to it, perpendicular to the first.
- The fourth peg ends the boundary of the enclosed area.
- We make the slope of the tracks - 5 mm per meter. This is necessary so that the water leaves freely in the ground, soaking it with lawns or flowing into wells.
How to lay the base under paving slabs
An important point in paving the sidewalk is the preparation of the foundation. The better the foundation is prepared, the longer it will last. What is better to lay paving slabs on?
Often, summer residents ask the question: "Is it possible to lay paving slabs on the sand?" Sure.
There are two ways to lay pavers — on a sand cushion and on a concrete base.
How to lay paving slabs on the sand
- We remove the fertile layer of the earth so that there are no plants on the soil. We ram it. If the earth is soft, we pour water for a better tamping. The depth of the excavation should be 15-30 cm.
- We put a layer of crushed stone of 8-10 cm. We seal with a vibrating plate.
- We spread geotextiles on crushed stone. It will not allow crushed stone to move with sand located a layer higher above the geotextile. He will prevent the appearance of any sprouts.
- Pour a layer of sand 40 cm. The sand should be clean without impurities. Fill the sand with water so that puddles appear. We ram it.
- Instead of sand, you can take a sand-cement mixture in a ratio of 3: 1. If we take the mixture, then a layer of 20-30cm is enough.
- Pour some water to better tamp the layer. The base is ready.
Now we start laying out the tiles. You can put it in three ways:
We are preparing a sand-cement mixture. (sand-6 parts. cement-one.)
Moisten and harden the layer a little.
In parallel with kapron threads, we put two pipes to limit the space.
Take the rule and level the mixture, resting it against the pipes.
Now let's look at its quantity. Where the mixture is not enough, add up. If a lot, we remove.
Before you begin the process of laying paving stones, check its quality, whether there are chips, cracks. Lay it on the mixture tightly to each other.
With a rubber mallet, knock on the paving stones, seeking its best connection. You need to lay the tiles on your own.
To saw off the paving slabs, use an angle grinder, you can grinder with a power of at least 2 kW.
Having laid out the sidewalk, we pour cement-sand mortar on top.
Now we put the border. Swarm grooves for the curb. They should be slightly wider than the curbstone itself. The curb is placed in order to keep the paving stones on soft soil, not to let it get off it. In addition, a curbstone equals the edge of the laid tile. It can be placed both before laying pavers and after.
The border should be flush with the tile, maybe a little higher. First, put a 5cm sand cushion, wet the sand, compact it. We pour concrete mortar to the bottom of the groove and put the curb stone very quickly until the mortar has hardened. The gaps between the laid tiles and the border are poured with a solution.
How to lay paving slabs on a concrete base
A more solid foundation for pavers is concrete. A huge amount of heavy equipment can pass through it. From this she will not sag, will not crack.
A cement-sand cushion is a movable base, and concrete is a solid base. Therefore, it is much better to level the paving stones on a concrete base. It does not need to be tamped like parts on pillows.
The concrete screed solidifies, forming an even base. But concrete blocks the way for water, preventing it from seeping into the ground.
Sand and gravel cushion with the help of pores passes water down. The soil absorbs it.
Concrete screed does not let rain water through. It accumulates in the seams between the tiles. When frosts strike, the water under the cobblestones and between the seams turns into ice. The block of ice with all the force presses on the coating, lifting it. Cracks may form in the sidewalk at the edges. Therefore, before pouring a concrete screed, make a drain. You can create rulers, point moisture receivers or make a bias.
To correctly lay the paving slabs on a concrete base, you need to fill in the screed.
We mark the platform for concrete. We put the pegs and pull the threads at an angle of 5 degrees. We remove the turf with a depth of 25cm. In the resulting groove, cleaned of seeds and leaves of plants, we pour crushed stone with a layer of 10-15 cm, making a bias. Ramming
Through each square meter with a height of 15-20 cm, we make drainage holes for draining water. After the concrete has hardened, we fill them with gravel (gravel passes water).
We lay the formwork from 40 mm thick boards. To strengthen it, put pegs. To fill the base using a concrete mixture: cement (1 part), sand (3 parts), gravel (1 part). A 3-5 cm thick concrete mixture is poured onto a pillow of crushed stone.
When the concrete hardens, they put a reinforcing mesh, and again concrete is poured from above 5-10 cm high. After 2-3 days, paving stones can be laid.
We will tell you how to properly lay paving slabs with your own hands on a concrete base.
Swarm a groove for a border. We take into account the slope of the paving. Knead the cement-sand mixture 1: 3. Put a layer 3-5cm. We put a curbstone on it, driving it into the solution with a mallet. When the mixture dries, fill the cracks with sand, soak with water.
Before laying the paving stones, we pour the cement-sand mixture 1: 6, we level it with the rule, we ram the vibrating plate. Pour a layer of 10 cm of the mixture, set the beacons, level it with the rule. We lay the tiles, leaving a gap of 5 cm between them for expansion. Sprinkle cracks in the sand with fine gravel, spill with water.
How to lay paving slabs on the blind area
From the house we measure the distance to the curb. Mark the tracks with a peg and cord. We remove the soil with a depth of the height of the curb stone, adding 2-4 cm. We fill in concrete solution for a border. We put it. Ramming
Pour crushed stone at a slope. We put marking boards 3-6 meters thick 20-40mm. Reinforced mesh on top. If the site is small, you can do without fittings and boards. Fill it with concrete mixture. When it hardens, we make a dry cement-sand mixture 1: 6 and we fall asleep the base. We lay out the tiles on it. We spill water from a watering can. Pour the same mixture on top and sweep it in the gap. Water it. Where water drains through the pipe, a concrete drain can be laid.
Laying polymer paving slabs.
Plastic tile is the same polymer. The rules for laying polymer tiles are the same as when laying ordinary paving slabs.
Features of its styling is:
- When removing the soil layer, any lack of vegetation at the bottom of the groove is important. Any plant can raise the tile, breaking the flooring.
- When preparing the base, a layer of gravel 10 cm of a fraction of 20-30 mm and a layer of sand 5-7 cm are poured. Metal or plastic beacons are made in the sand, along which a sand-cement screed 3 cm high is equal.
- Borders should be 3-5 cm above the laid platform or track. The distance between the curb and the tile is filled with insets.
- Instead of a gravel-sand cushion, you can make a concrete screed.
- You can plant a tile on a tile adhesive, cement mortar or sand pad.
- You can cut tiles only with a hacksaw. Electric tools will leave thermal marks on plastic.
- After laying the tiles, fill the seams with sand or a sand-cement mixture.
- Be sure to observe the slope. You can make drainage grooves on the sides.
How much does it cost to lay paving slabs and its price in the market
To lay paving slabs the price of work is from 450 rubles per square meter. For the preparation of the concrete base-750 rubles, sand and gravel cushion-570 rubles per square meter.
Today we told you and showed a video how to lay paving slabs. We will be glad to see a photo of your laid track or playground in the country.