Kanalieva Julia, a student of grade 8, completed a creative project on the topic of "Knitting," which reflected the following sections: goals and objectives of the project, the necessary materials and tools, the technological sequence of manufacturing. This work was exhibited at the Golden Key regional contest.
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Municipal educational institution
student 8 "A" class
- Justification of the choice of topics, the purpose of the project, the objectives of the project ....
- The choice of design idea ………………………………… .5
- Design - analysis ………………………………………………… ..7
1. What is knitting?
2. The history of knitting.
3. Knitting tools.
3.2.Materials for the manufacture of knitting needles.
3.3. Spoke storage.
4. Yarn for knitting.
- Basic knitting techniques.
- The initial row of loops.
- Front loop.
- Wrong loop.
- Edge loop.
- Fastening the last row.
- Shawl knitting.
- Embossed Shawl
- Hosiery from twisted loops.
6. Knitting on 5 knitting needles.
Rationale for choosing a topic:
Last year, in technology lessons, I learned how to knit. I really liked this lesson, and this year I decided to design some kind of knitted product. Needs that can be met through the design and manufacture of the product:
- create your own style,
Project goal: To create and present a product knitted to your taste.
- Choosing the best idea.
- Collection of information.
- Drawing up the manufacturing technology of the product.
- Calculation of the cost of the product.
- The implementation of the technological stage.
- Compilation of advertising.
- Preparing to protect the project.
Design Idea Choice
Set of hat, scarf.
3. Knitted toy
Using the selection criteria, I chose the idea number 1. I think that idea No. 1 is the most relevant of all. Since knitting a vest is still a difficult task for me, because I’m just learning to knit, so I’ll try to knit a hat set with a scarf.
1. What is knitting?
Knitting is the process of manufacturing products (usually clothing items) from continuous threads by bending them into loops and connecting the loops to each other using simple tools manually (knitting hook, knitting needles, needle) or on a special machine (mechanical knitting).
2. The history of knitting.
Many will be surprised that initially knitting was actually not female needlework. Previously, men were knitted mainly - women could only spin wool.
According to some sources, knitting originated about 3,000 years ago. This is probably due to the need for warm clothing for the inhabitants of the north, many will think. But this art did not originate in the cold snowy Arctic, but, paradoxically, in hot Africa - about where the northern deserts of the continent are. The first primitive hooks began to be used by the ancient Bedouin nomads. They created scarves, burnts and capes, with the help of which they protected the skin from the scorching sun and hot sand.
Knitted socks found in Coptic tombs date from the 4th - 5th centuries, the oldest (3rd century, Prato Nazca) knitted items of the New World were found in Peru. High quality workmanship from the graves of Copts suggests that the knitting technique was known much earlier. In 1867, William Felkin hypothesized that knitting was known even during the Trojan War.
Images in ancient Greek vases of captured Trojans in tight, tight-fitting trousers give grounds for some researchers to claim that the Greeks knew knitting. It is possible that the prophet Daniel depicted in the Book of Kells (c. 800) is dressed in tight trousers (the prototype of modern leggings) connected by an Aranian pattern.
In Scandinavia, in the Viking era, knitting with a wooden or bone needle was practiced - a more time-consuming type of knitting fabric than crochet or knitting. The cloth connected by a needle cannot be dismissed by pulling on the tip of the thread. Archaeological finds of fragments of things made in this technique from England (Coppergate), Finland (Kokomaki), Germany (Mammen), Norway (Oslo), Russia (Novgorod) date back to the 10th – 11th centuries. There are about thirty methods for knitting with a needle. During the excavation, only small things made in this technique were found (mittens, socks, headbands). The tradition of knitting with a needle was preserved in areas with a harsh climate until the end of the 20th century.
In central and southern Europe, the art of knitting was revived in the 13th century. Gloves and pillowcases from silk threads were found in the tombs of princes from the de la Cerda family in the abbey of Santa Maria la Real de Las Hulgas. Moreover, the density of the knitted pillowcase is comparable to the density of modern knitwear - about twenty loops per inch.
In the 16th century, knitting stockings was widespread in Spain, then the fashion for knitted gloves came. The first guild uniting knitters was created in Paris in 1527. A knitting machine for making stockings was invented in England by priest William Lee in 1589.
Since the middle of the eighteenth century, knitting, like many men's occupations, passed into the hands of the weak half of humanity. Now it’s a real rarity to see a knitting man, but women have succeeded in this craft so much that they began to consider knitting exclusively a female occupation.
3. Knitting tools.
Knitting needles - a tool for hand knitting, long and usually with a slightly pointed end. On the spoke there are working (unclosed) loops of the web, which prevents them from blooming. Using the sharp end, new loops are formed.
3.1. Types of knitting needles
Knitting needles differ in thickness, it also determines the number of needles. The number is equal to the diameter of the spokes. For example, needles with a diameter of 3 mm will be marked as No. 3.
Single spokes are the most common type of spokes with one pointed end and a stop on the other. Thanks to this tip, the loops do not slide off the knitting needle. Often, on these tips, manufacturers indicate the number of needles. Such knitting needles are used for knitting any type of product, except for those that knit in a circle.
Straight double-sided or stocking knitting needles - knitting needles with two working ends, are used for seamless circular knitting (for example, socks). These knitting needles are usually shorter than straight single needles and are sold in sets of 4-5 pieces. When knitting on such knitting needles, two of them are workers, the rest hold the other open loops. Loops when knitting are distributed on 4 knitting needles and knit with a 5th knitting needle.
Circular knitting needles - a special type of straight single knitting needles, where a pair of the same number is interconnected by a flexible band (fishing line or plastic tube). On such types, you can knit as a direct fabric, and seamless circular large diameter. The advantage of such knitting needles before straight single is that the weight of the knitted fabric is distributed evenly over the knitting needles and the hands of the master are less loaded. Another plus of these spokes is that they have both working ends.
Auxiliary knitting needles - double-sided knitting needles, curved in the middle. Used to lay open loops.
Materials for the manufacture of knitting needles.
Knitting needles are made of different materials - metal, plastic, wood and bamboo.
Each needlewoman chooses knitting needles to her liking, but still, when buying, you need to know some features of the tools from a particular material.
Metal knitting needles - made mainly of steel or aluminum. The most reliable tools are made of steel, but they are heavier than their aluminum counterparts. But at the same time, aluminum knitting needles can easily bend and stain yarn when knitting. In order to avoid the latter, many aluminum spokes are coated with Teflon.
Plastic knitting needles - will help when working with thick light yarn, but they are very fragile. These needles are very convenient for working with ribbon-like yarn or cord. Often, such knitting needles are issued in large numbers.
Knitting needles made of wood are very light, but burrs may appear on them over time. The loops do not slip on the knitting needles, which makes them attractive to beginner knitters.
Bamboo knitting needles are lightweight and durable. Due to the fact that they are a little rough, the working loops do not slide off them. Suitable for any kind of yarn.
Bone tools are made by hand, so they are expensive. They are well polished, but very fragile. Therefore, they must be carefully stored and used.
It is better to store knitting needles in a long pencil case or a special klyasser. Single knitting needles from one set are desirable to connect together so as not to get confused. You can tie them with a thread or elastic, you can cut off a piece of eraser and stick the sharp ends of the knitting needles into it. Circular knitting needles are recommended to be kept suspended to prevent distortion of the dressing.
There is today a huge variety. In order not to get lost in this variety and choose threads for knitting that correspond to the set goal, you need to know what kind of yarn is for knitting and to create what kind of clothes one or another type is used.
Knitting threads are divided into natural (linen, cotton, wool, mohair, silk) and synthetic (acrylic, rayon, rayon, cashmere). However, most often, yarn for knitting is a combination of artificial and natural fibers, selected in appropriate proportions.
Knitting threads (yarn, etc.) are obtained by twisting together several threads with the same or different tension (weak, less than sewing threads), simple or shaped twist. There is also untwisted yarn - roving.
For knitting warm winter clothes, as a rule, a thicker yarn for knitting is used - it can be wool, mohair, alpaca. Naturally, yarn with a minimum synthetic content, containing valuable threads (angora, natural cashmere, silk) is more expensive, but also more attractive and durable in the product.
In crocheting, cotton threads are most often used for knitting. Their smooth texture and attractive shine allow you to create original things and toys that are easy to wash and retain their original appearance.
Knitting threads can have a different texture and thickness, which determine the final properties of the knitted thing, so before you get down to needlework, you should make sure that the selected knitting threads are suitable for a specific model.
- Basic knitting techniques.
- The initial row of loops.
Any knitting begins with a set of needles of a certain number of loops that form the initial row. It then becomes the bottom edge of knitting.
5.2. The front loop can be knitted in two ways:
The first way is the classic one, behind the front wall.
The second way is to knit the front loop behind the back wall.
- The wrong loop can also be knitted in the first and second ways.
These loops can be knitted in two ways. The most common is when the first loop is removed without knitting it, while the last is necessarily knitted on the wrong side. The second method is to knit the edge loop at the end of the canvas with the front loop. In the first case, the edge of the canvas is smooth, in the second - nodules are visible at the edges.
- Fastening the last row.
Since any knitting ends, you need to learn how to close the loops of the last row and get the top edge of the knitted fabric. Do it differently:
The first way. The last and subsequent loops are knitted together front.
The second way. The last loop is re-lifted to the right knitting needle without a knit, the first loop is knitted with a facial loop (classic).
5.9. Twisted loop hosiery
The difference between knitting and the previous one is that the fabric has a relief surface. All front loops fit into the front wall, purl are performed in the usual way.
6. Knitting on five knitting needles.
Products such as socks, tights, knitted toys and much more have a tubular shape and are made without seams. How to knit such products? To do this, use five knitting needles with open ends: loops are located on four, and they are knitted with a fifth. Putting two knitting needles together, they get the required number of loops (a multiple of four), they take out one knitting needle and knit one row of the selected viscous. Then distribute the loops on four knitting needles equally, tie the end of the thread from the beginning of knitting with the thread from the ball - close the work - and knit clockwise on the outside of the circle. It should be remembered that the front side of the knitting always appears in front of you and to obtain, for example, hosiery knitting, it is enough to knit all the loops in all rows with the front knit.
1. For work it is used:
White 300 gr. Nikole yarn (100m / 50g.)
Knitting: Scarf size: 23 cm * 150 cm.
We knit a scarf with a pearl pattern.
2. The manufacture of the product.
Knitted hat with braids and a scarf
So, now a hat and a scarf.
Knitted from Nikole yarn (100m / 50g.) Yarn composition: 70% merino wool, 25% acrylic, 5% polyamide. This yarn is for children, so it is very soft, knitting from such a pleasure. The kit took about 300 grams. Maybe a little more, this scarf turned out to be more dense than black and knitted 10 cm longer.
The cap and scarf are knitted with a thread in 2 additions.
To knit a scarf we need: 200 gr. yarn Nikole (100m / 50g.), knitting needles 4,5
Scarf size: 23 cm * 150 cm.
We knit a scarf with a pearl pattern.
We collect 32 p. And knit:
1 row: 1 chrome., 1 persons., 1 out., 1 persons., 1 out., So to the end,
2 row and all even rows: 1 chrome., Knit according to the figure,
3 row: 1 chrome., 1 out., 1 persons., 1 out., 1 persons., And so on to the end.
repeat these 3 rows.
For knitting hats we need: 100 gr. yarn Nikole (100m / 50g.) and knitting needle number 4. We knit a thread in 2 addition.
We collect 80 loops and knit on 2 needles with an elastic band 2 * 2 (2 persons, 2 out.). So we knit 6 rows.
Next, we divide the cap conditionally into 8 parts, in 4 we knit with a “pearl pattern” that knits our scarf, in the other 4 parts we knit with a “braid” pattern.
We start not with 10 loops, but with 5 so that we have a seam at the back, and an even pattern in the front in the middle. So, we knit 1 chrome, 4 loops of a pearl pattern, 10 loops of faces of a smooth surface, 10 loops of a pattern, etc.
Braid pattern: pattern repetition of 10 loops, we distribute as follows: 2 loops out., 6 loops front (of which we will get a braid 3 on 3) and 2 loops out.
After the elastic 2 * 2 we knit like this: 1 chrome., 4 loops of a pearl pattern, braids: 2 loops. out., pet faces., 2 loops. out., 10 loops of pearl pattern, 10 loops for braid etc.
Out. knit rows according to the drawing. So we knit 5 rows. Next, twist the braid.
We knit the braid like this: 3 loops are removed on the knitting needle at work, we knit 3 loops of faces., And now 3 loops, which we also knit at work, face.
Depending on what kind of braids you want with more frequent transitions or more elongated, you knit the number of rows from one cross to another. I have 10 rows.
So we knit 16 cm. After 16 cm, we begin the decrease.
1 row: First, we begin to decrease in segments with braids. In the photo we see 10 loops of the braid pattern, we knit them as follows: 2 out., 1 person, 2 together., 2 together., 1 person., 2 out., So in each track with braids. After the first row of decreases, we have 72 p.
The back rows are knitted according to the drawing.
3 row: similar to the first, now we knit 2 out., 2 in. People., 2 in. People, 2 out. Here we start the decrease in segments with a pearl pattern, we also make the decrease in the middle of the segment, but here we knit 2 cm. not only individuals, but if this loop is drawn as in the drawing, then we knit 2 cm. out. = 56 p.
Wrong again on the drawing.
5th row: similarly to 3rd = 40 p.
Out. a number of drawings.
7 row: similar to the 3rd. = 24 p.
9 row: chrome., 2 VM. persons. = 13 p.
In out. a row - chrome., 2 vm. out. = 7 p.
Now we need to fix these 7 loops. To do this, enter the hook on the right
Grab the thread and drag through all the loops.
We pull the thread, fasten, sew the seam of the cap.
The relevance of the idea
Young mothers are happy to buy booties, socks, boots, suits for their babies. Matured girls like to wear berets with a long scarf. And it is thanks to knitwear that one can have a fashionable look and style.
Hand knitting is always prestigious, so you can safely use it with business, especially in the absence of the main job or during the period of child care. Owning the knitting technique itself, in cooperation with knitters, you can achieve good results in this business. At the same time, they themselves dress in fashion and beautifully.
How to open a business
However, not all so simple. The market for knitted things is flooded, and there are many branded companies that have gained popularity among buyers, and it is not easy to compete with them. The modern buyer is picky enough: either the color of the thread is not like, the model is outdated, the thing is too tightly connected, the pattern is not like, the details are messy.
Tips from knowledgeable craftsmen: you need to start a business with that type of knitting, the patterns of which are better sold out in a given area. Therefore, before starting your knitwear business from scratch, you need to study the demand market and the needs of customers well:
- conduct a thorough inspection of the counters of several markets with knitted goods,
- Explore model magazines
- organize an observation that more ‘goes’ in the market, how often is bought,
- analyze pricing for knitwear.
This line of business needs a very thorough business plan and thoughtful preparation for the business process itself.
Пошаговая инструкция подготовки к открытию бизнеса включает в себя следующие этапы:
- Изучение рыночного спроса.
- Заготовка вязанных моделей на 2-3 месяца вперед для ассортимента, постепенно добавляя новые модели по ходу продажи.
- Find experienced knitters by first exploring their capabilities.
- To prepare a sufficient number of skeins of wool of different thickness, color, quality.
- To prepare knitting needles, hooks of different sizes in thickness and length, accessories.
- Buy a knitting machine.
- To think over a niche, an opportunity to offer buyers original works (socks, hats, berets, sweaters, sweaters, tights, suits, shawls, rugs).
Making a business and finding a room
After thorough preparation and self-confidence, you can do the registration of a business project. For this type of business, you can issue an IP, with a simplified tax system and a single income tax. It should be borne in mind that it is almost impossible to take a loan for the do-it-yourself knitting business at the bank, since it is considered unprofitable, so you have to rely only on yourself.
This enterprise will be an atelier of finished knitted patterns, with the removal of individual lots for trading on the market, for faster implementation. The room will serve to demonstrate samples of finished products, transactions / settlements with customers, receive orders over the phone and solve other organizational issues. To perform all these tasks, you will need a room with an area of 20-25 square meters. m. Main requirements:
- good illumination and ventilation,
- the room must be dry
- to have convenient racks for demonstration of finished models.
Advertising campaign and staff recruitment
The success of a business largely depends on the preliminary and ongoing advertising campaign. You can include its various forms:
- a bright, eye-catching sign
- ideal samples of knitted models in the studio,
- Business cards
- advertising on institutions, poles,
- Internet advertising,
- Word of mouth.
A very important point for the do-it-yourself knitting business is the recruitment of a professional staff or a knitter with great experience, good taste, patient, assiduous, with a good knitting speed. It’s better to recruit staff on their own, as the success of the business will depend on their technical and design capabilities. It is advisable that knitters have a document at least about the completion of courses.
The number of knitters at the start of a business will depend on financial opportunities, but not less than 1-3. The salary of knitters is around $ 60. The area for female workers in the premises is not calculated, since they perform work at home and hand over the goods by the indicated date.
How much does it cost to open a business
Wool is another of the highlights of this creative business. Before purchasing it, it is necessary to study the possibilities of different varieties with the help of literature and experienced craftsmen, since different raw materials give different results in the finished product, and can fail in the most unexpected moment. To test the wool, you can impose samples of 5 × 5 or 10 × 10 cm from different balls (varieties), and only having adapted to the wool, you can safely knit without preliminary samples.
This part of the business plan provides an opportunity to fully calculate your resources for starting a business and for subsequent periods. Allows you to see vulnerabilities and ways to reduce business risk. So, the flow consists of the following items:
- company registration
- stocking of wool, knitting needles, hooks, accessories, magazines with models,
- preparation of forms for contracts, receipts for payment to customers,
- rent payment
- redecorating a room,
- Payment of utility services,
- salary to staff
- single tax payment,
- advertising costs,
- equipment purchase (knitting machine 1-2, tables, cabinets, mirror, table, chairs),
- communication costs.
Profit minus all regular payments is calculated according to the following indicators and will be approximately 18-19 thousand rubles.
- The price per unit of model (if a sweater) is 2.5 thousand rubles.
- The product at cost - 550 rubles.
- The price of wool, 550 g - 550 rubles.
- Payment of work - 600 rubles.
- Products per month - 12-15 pcs.
- The number of knitters - 3-5 people.
Extra income will be a good source of income. In this business you can make good profits by selling wool, tools (knitting needles, hooks), accessories, knitting magazines. All this is well sold out. People trust specialists. Tips from knowledgeable craftsmen: machine knitting is valued less than manual knitting, so it’s better not to enter it right away. You should be guided by creating similar products to order.
How to create your own knitting business
Individuality, naturalness, hand-made (Eng. Hand made - made by hand) is in trend today. Unique copyrighted items are highly valued and are in constant demand. Given this trend, needlewomen who knit well themselves, as well as beginners who are just starting to learn, but knowing how to profitably realize the results of the work of hired workers, can open a profitable business.
The prospect of opening his knitting business is for someone who has organizational skills, understands where to start, and how to do it.
To put a serious business on its feet, you will have to devote all your time to this at the initial stage. To develop models, knit, look for customers and new sales channels, select high-quality yarn at the best price, promote, keep records.
The market does not stand still, store shelves are bursting with a huge number of knitwear. And this means that your products will have to compete with them.
A unique thing, lovingly tied by a craftswoman, for many is preferable to a phased factory product
Market and Resource Analysis
Knitwear market research is a key step in preparing a business plan. Already at the first stage of planning you should know: who, where, why and in what volumes will buy your products, what should be the range, how strong (and important) competition.
At the initial stage, it is enough to evaluate:
- The number of potential buyers, the total market.
- The presence of competitors, how they work, how they position themselves, where they are advertised.
- Are there any free niches in the local market?
- The cost of similar products.
It is not always possible to accurately calculate the number of customers, the volume of sales in one's niche, or the turnover of money in the market. But at the beginning of the way, when it is necessary to determine the viability of an idea, it is important to understand the lower limit of income per month. If the calculations allow you to hope for a profit that suits you, you can continue to work on the project.
Check the prices of knitted products, including industrial production, as well as imported analogues both in stores and on the Internet. Do not trust memory: take pictures of products and prices, record, write all the data into a file. This will come in handy when calculating the selling price of your products.
Visit your competitors' personal pages or online stores selling hand-made things - this will give you great food for thought
Market appraisal is an important stage for launching a project. But no less important for starting a knitting business is the study of internal resources (subjective factors that depend primarily on you):
- Personal enthusiasm, the involvement of the author in a promising project. It all starts with your interest. This is the main resource during the launch phase. It is necessary to understand that difficulties, barriers and mistakes will certainly be. The internal mood and a great desire to engage in this particular area will help to overcome them.
- Competence and knowledge. For beginner knitters, the main available resource is personal time. Part of the work (or all) at the stage of formation will have to be done independently or - checked by the craftswomen. Therefore, it is important to understand the basics of knitting, designing and modeling well.
- The size of the starting investment. Start-up capital is not only money. Initial capital includes personal contacts and connections, the competencies of close people, and much more. You need to consider everything.
- Understanding your business development opportunities. If, at the start of the project, you think about the steps to scale (increase your business), the chance to bring your home business to the average level is much higher. It is important to imagine how the project will look during its maturity.
It is at the stage of assessing the market of knitted products and domestic resources that it is necessary to calculate the approximate profit, the term for a business project to reach a certain monthly profitability, and the payback period.
Without a well-thought-out business plan to conquer the knitwear market, success is not worth it
Define your own assortment
What to specialize in? Which products will be the main ones, and which direction will be related? These questions must be answered at the second stage of planning. After analytical preparation, just select the assortment to start the knitting project.
Most popular categories:
- children's clothes (hats, booties, blouses, warm pants, etc.),
- outerwear for adults (coats, cardigans, sweaters, vests, skirts, blouses, dresses),
- home knitted clothes
- scarves, hats, stoles,
- mittens and mittens, socks and leg warmers,
- knitted plaids, blankets, pillowcases firmly entered into fashion,
- curtains, tablecloths, napkins.
A set of knitted hats, scarves and mittens never goes out of style
A fairly new assortment for the market:
- clothes for pets (overalls for cats and dogs),
- sets that are worn in pairs become popular: he + she, daughter + mom, dad + son,
- handmade swimwear, light tops,
- knitted carpets
- mug covers can be sold as business souvenirs or as a personal gift “from the heart”.
Clothing for your favorite pets can be an addition to the assortment or the main business
The wider the assortment, the greater the shaft of products sold and, as a result, profit. But the higher the financial investments and risks, the more time-consuming and physical activities.
The advantages of manual knitting
If before starting a business you were only engaged in knitting or crocheting, it is recommended to start with hand knitting. In this case, you can:
- understand capabilities faster, see bottlenecks, find ways to reduce costs and mitigate risks,
- adequately assess the time costs per unit of production, the degree of professionalism in hiring workers,
- not to purchase expensive equipment, a separate workplace,
- to personally verify that hand-knitted models are sold 30–40% more expensive than machine-made products,
- Get ample opportunity to translate the most daring ideas.
Consider three options out of a dozen possible.
Knitting "on hand". In a few hours, a massive blanket is knitted from bulk yarn (merino wool or from thick acrylic threads).
For a canvas measuring 70 x 100 cm, knitted with a simple facial stitch, it will take about 1.5 kg of yarn. Material costs will be offset by the price of the finished product.
Hand-knitted blanket brings special tenderness and warmth
Knitting with interspersed beads. A simple technique with which amazing things are obtained. An inexhaustible source for creating unique clothes and accessories. When knitting beads in the canvas, things begin to play with new colors and halftones, they get a unique charm.
Photo gallery: work with beads
Cozy knitted toys. They are in great demand, require a minimum of material, and what a stream of warm and tender emotions these babies carry. And finding a place to implement them is easy.
Knitted toys will not leave anyone indifferent
Benefits of Machine Knitting
There are a number of advantages to machine knitting:
- a knitting machine significantly speeds up the work,
- reduced time for manufacturing simple viscous parts, and the craftswoman can focus on the author’s handmade elements (embroidery, crocheting, etc.),
- things turn out thinner and lighter, look elegant and sophisticated.
Knitting on a typewriter significantly reduces the time it takes to make one product
If you plan to increase volumes and expand the range, a knitting machine will be needed. Therefore, at the stage of development of a business project, it is recommended to plan the purchase of one (two) knitting machines and begin to combine both methods of knitting.
Provide a set of tools, select staff
At the second stage of business planning, it is necessary to include in the costs a complete list of all the necessary tools and equipment, take into account personnel costs.
The basic set for starting a knitting business:
- spokes with a diameter of 2 to 10 mm,
- needle sets
- accessories (buttons, appliques, buckles, lace, fur, beads, sequins, other decorative elements),
- steamer (optional)
- knitting machine (perhaps later, at the development stage),
- consumables for machine knitting: carriages, deckers, weights (for linen), needles, other tools.
If you decide to use machine knitting, the choice of a working tool should be taken seriously.
Machines are: single-circuit and double-circuit, punch cards (mechanical) and electronic. All of them are divided into classes, the lower the class, the thicker the threads for knitting (such machines are used for the manufacture of outerwear and winter accessories).
On machines with class level No. 5, you can associate any product, so they are optimally suitable for mass production. Price range - from 25 to 120 thousand rubles. The more professional the equipment, the more functions on a typewriter, the higher the price.
In the process, you yourself determine what materials are needed, all individually.
Knitter toolkit is not limited to knitting needles and hooks
Work on your own or hire knitters?
The number of employees when starting a business depends on financial opportunities. To start faster and start to receive a stable income, it is advisable to hire one or three people.
This may be women on maternity leave, pensioners, people with disabilities. Such work is estimated at 50-150 dollars a month, the payment depends on the volume and complexity of the work. Knitters should be responsible, patient, assiduous, with a high knitting speed, have good taste and modeling ability.
A separate room for female workers is usually not required. Knitters can work at home, and hand over finished products by the deadline.
Choosing a craftswoman is better on her own, because the success of your business will depend on their technical and creative capabilities.
Knitting is not a job, but a vocation
Organize your workplace
The main criterion for the knitter’s workplace is comfort: everything is at hand, nothing distracts.
Regardless of whether you plan to rent a room or intend to work at home, the place to work should be bright, dry, well-ventilated. After all, the more convenient the work is organized, the faster the knitting process goes, the volumes grow.
The workplace must be professionally equipped.
To do this, you must:
- Allocate space for yarn and supplies.
- Determine the place for the finished products and organize a visual storage system (if you plan to receive customers in the workshop, this will be additional advertising).
- Provide a place with comfortable working furniture (table, chair or chair).
- Put a coffee table and a chair for receiving visitors (preferably).
- Equip the fitting room.
The workplace for machine knitting should be comfortable and well lit.
Planning to work on a typewriter? Immediately pick up a table with a built-in knitting machine (“cabinet”, as its manufacturer calls it). If the machine is not built-in, the table must be selected based on its dimensions (usually 0.5 m is enough). The main thing is that the table is heavy and stable, otherwise it will be difficult to knit.
Customer search and advertising
Until the time when you have stable sales channels for your products, it is recommended to work on order and through sales over the Internet.
The first buyers are easier to find among friends, colleagues, neighbors. Feel free to ask clients to advertise your work (of course, if they like them). Word of mouth will help increase sales of individual items. If you and your child have interesting knitwear, show them in places where potential customers can be: playgrounds, holidays, art exhibitions, etc.
We collect a portfolio of our work. Such a catalog is useful for showing to customers in the workshop and for advertising on the Internet. Perhaps you decide to make small booklets with your work.
Sales and promotion on the Internet is a separate conversation, here you can sell almost everything:
- Create your groups in social networks, on the sites VKontakte.ru, Facebook, Odnoklassniki, instagram, Mom’s page (social network for moms), etc. Actively replenish and promote your pages.
- Place ads on sites of announcements of goods and services such as Avito, sites of needlewomen. Pay attention to the site of the hypermarket of copyright works “Fair of Masters”.
- There are skills and opportunities - create a one-page website.
- Go to specialized knitting forums, here you can get advice and support, advertise your business.
- Look at the messages on the Internet on the topic of "knitting", choose the brightest and most memorable and do better.
Sales (especially on the Internet) need to learn. Find out how to create a website, promote a blog, write the right advertising text, take beautiful photos. Information, training videos and webinars on these topics can always be found on the expanses of the World Wide Web.
Собственная страничка с образцами работ резко поднимет продажи вязаных изделий
Рассмотрите все выгоды рекламы:
- размещайте объявления в местах, где есть ваша целевая аудитория,
- выкладывайте буклеты с работами на крупных предприятиях и детских садах,
- оформите рабочее место, если принимаете клиентов.
Сделайте стильные визитки с указанием того, чем вы занимаетесь (авторские вещи, нестандартные аксессуары, ремонт и т. п.). The costs are minimal, you can order from 24 pieces in a printing house or make them yourself. Leave them in kindergartens, at the cash desks of stores, so that everyone can make individual orders with you.
There are no trifles in advertising. Each message of the target audience should be competent, beautiful, attract attention, stand out from the stream of similar messages.
During the development period of a business project, in order to ensure a stable income, it is necessary to find places where you can turn in finished products on an ongoing basis. These may be women's and men's clothing stores, children's departments, departments of souvenir products, home textiles, hats. In almost all cities there are art workshops where copyright items are sold (clothing, souvenirs, textiles).
The choice of distribution channel should depend on the assortment. Knitted toys, for example, will be in demand in flower stalls, as well as in specialized gift delivery stores.
When determining the selling price, it is important to take into account that stores take goods only for sale, and the store’s margin is on average 30% or more.
Copyright Store - 100% Target Audience
How to issue an IP
To protect yourself from the legal and financial side, it is better to open an IP. Entrepreneurship in the Russian Federation is registered by the tax inspectorate.
The fastest way to register an individual as an individual entrepreneur is through a personal account on the State Services website. This is the best option if you already have a personal account on the site.
Terms of service: 3 working days. Cost: 800 rubles.
How to get the service:
- Fill out the electronic application for state registration of an individual as an individual entrepreneur.
- Pay the state fee.
- Send the generated application to the tax authority and wait for the results of its consideration (you will receive an invitation to visit the registering authority in the “My Account”).
- Take the documents.
The portal of public services is the best assistant in the registration of any business
The second option for issuing an IP is to submit documents personally. Since 2017, the registration of IPs from tax authorities has been transferred to multifunctional centers. If there is no MFC in the city, the application is submitted to the tax office (required at the place of registration).
Prior to visiting the center (or IFTS), you must prepare documents and decide on the following points:
- Choose the main and additional types of activities according to OKVED-2 (the All-Russian Classifier of Types of Economic Activities, entered into force on July 11, 2016).
Define a tax system. The best option here is a simplified tax system (STS 6%), when an individual entrepreneur pays six percent of all gross profit.
Collect a complete package of documents. Passport of a citizen of the Russian Federation (with copies of all pages), copy of certificate with TIN number of an individual (if any), receipt of payment of state duty for registration of an individual entrepreneur, application for registration of a citizen as an individual entrepreneur in the form of Р21001, application for application of the simplified tax system in form No. 26.2–1 .
For knitting clothes, the main code will be OKVED 14.13.1 (Production of knitted or knitted outerwear). It is also necessary to pick up a few additional codes of activity of the individual entrepreneur. For example, OKVED 14.14.1 (Production of knitted and crocheted underwear), OKVED code 14.19.5 (Sewing and knitting of other clothes and clothing accessories, hats for individual orders of the population), etc. For the sale of knitted products, a separate code is needed. OKVED 47.51 is suitable here (Retail sale of textiles in specialized stores).
Do not get carried away with the number of OKVED; pick up 10-15 codes. After opening the IP, you can always add new activities to the list or refuse unnecessary codes. To do this, just write a tax application.
When paying state fees, be careful about the details and purpose of payment. It is impossible to return money for an incorrectly paid fee.
The receipt with the details must be taken from the website of the Federal Tax Service of the Russian Federation. When applying through the MFC for the purpose of payment, it is necessary to choose the wording “State registration of financial instruments as individual entrepreneurs”.
If you plan to go to the tax office to file documents, then the wording should be “State duty for registering FL as an individual entrepreneur”.
If you live in another city, you can register by sending a package of documents by registered mail with a list of contents. But it is better to personally visit the inspection, employees may have questions and clarifications on the package of documents.
Table: What factors to consider when drawing up a business plan
|№||Indicator / way of work (indicators are calculated based on 1 month)||Individual work at home||Industrial Production /|
|1||Income tax rate / IP||6%||6%|
|2||Number of workplaces||1||from 2 to 12|
|3||Salary||0||from 5 000 rub. / person|
|4||Income tax / fund payments||0||13-30% / s|
|5||Workplace equipment cost (manual knitting)||from 200 rub. up to 5 000 rub. +, depending on what is available||no|
|6||Cost of workplace equipment (machine binding)||from 30,000 to 120,000 rubles. / for 1 workplace||from 60,000 to 150,000 rubles. / for 1 place|
|6.1||a place for storing yarn (cabinet, rack, etc.)||from 0 to 2 500 rub.||from 2 500 rub.|
|6.2||for storage of finished products (hung, shelves, racks, etc.)||from 0 to 2,000 rubles.||from 2,000 to 20,000 rubles.|
|6.3||place to receive customers||from 0 to 5,000 rubles.||from 5,000 to 20,000 rubles.|
|6.4||additional equipment: straight-line machines,|
chain stitch machine, overlock, steam table, cutting table
|7||Material costs (yarn, accessories, consumables)||the cost of production is calculated separately, based on materials, models, etc.||production costs are calculated separately|
|8||Room Area||not taken into account||from 50 to 400 m²|
|9||Rental price 1 m² per month||0||from 100 rub. + for 1 m² / per month / depending on the region, place and condition of the room|
|from 50 rub.||from 9 500 rub.|
|11||Household expenses (cleaning, consumables for staff, etc.)||0||from 7 000 rub.|
|13||Profit||from 10 000 rub.||depending on all points|
|14||Payback||from 1 to 12 months||1-3 years|
Whether to open a knitting business
If you still doubt whether it is worth starting - weigh all the nuances. Take this issue seriously.
Take a piece of paper or make a tablet on the computer, thoroughly calculate all the costs (to help you the table above), supplement it, specify the details. Consumables should be as accurate as possible.
With the revenue side easier. Consider, based on real possibilities: how much time it takes for one thing, what and in what way you will knit, how many hands you will attract. At 100%, you are unlikely to get into the planned income from the first month. Therefore, do not thoroughly paint this item.
You can start a business with a small starting capital, look at the result, and then decide on the amount of further investments. You can immediately take out a development loan, but this is a big risk, keep this in mind.
At first, invest 50–80% of your profits into business development. The temptation to act differently, but accept as a rule that this is working money.
Know that people like you live and work in business. Just at a certain time, they were not afraid to take a chance, took into account all the nuances and stepped forward. Take a responsible attitude to your business, analyze the market and opportunities, draw up a detailed action plan, and think over development paths. Know, opening a business is quite simple, keeping it “afloat” is more difficult. If you make every effort, you will surely achieve your goal.