Cracked old tiles on the porch?
I bring to your attention the option of repairing the steps of a concrete porch with laying tiles. The article describes the progress of repairs carried out by the author in 2014.
At the moment, the porch has wintered perfectly in the winter. Perhaps the experience of the author will be useful to readers of the site rems-info.ru.
This information does not claim to be the ultimate truth.
Preparatory work for the restoration of the steps of the porch
First of all, the old tiles and the destroyed part of the base are removed.
Two stairs descend from the porch. On one side in front of the stairs it was necessary to make a small (1.5 by 2 meters) platform of paving stones.
Further, everything is abundantly shed with a primer and reinforced. I used fittings with a diameter of 8 millimeters and fit in increments of 30 centimeters. Interconnected reinforcement with two millimeter knitting wire. The edges of the reinforcement were driven into the remaining base.
Corner sections of concrete stairs are most often subject to mechanical damage. This usually occurs as a result of mechanical shock when moving and falling heavy objects. After a crack or chip appears, moisture may enter the staircase and contribute to the further destruction of the step. This is especially likely for street entrance facilities.
In order to repair the concrete steps of the stairs in this case, it is necessary:
- clean the damaged area with a hard brush,
- cover the repaired surface of the step with deep penetrating soil,
- prepare a cement-sand mortar in a ratio of 1: 2 or knead the finished dry mixture of tile glue,
- using a trowel or putty knife, apply the prepared cement mixture to the place of damage,
- fix the position of the cement mass by installing the formwork sheet,
- after hardening of the cement, smooth the corner edge with sandpaper and cover with two layers of soil with the addition of PVA glue.
For more reliable fixation of the solution on the surface, two holes can be drilled into the recess, hammered into the dowels and wound the wire between them, thus reinforcing the place to be repaired.
Before and after repair.
Stage rib repair
To restore the steps of a concrete staircase in case of damage to the side rib, you need to prepare:
- a grinder (angle grinder) with a diamond disc,
- chisel and hammer
- hammer drill or hammer drill,
- material for the formwork device,
- 2-3 steel dowels,
- wire with a diameter of 4-5 mm,
- Master OK,
- cement with sand
- deeply penetrating soil.
As a material for formwork, a board with a width not less than the riser height or other durable sheet material can be used.
The procedure for the repair and restoration of concrete stairs, in case of damage to the step rib, is as follows:
- make several incisions with the grinder on the repaired area 3-6 cm in depth of the structure,
- with a chisel and a hammer, chop the concrete in the places of the cuts and increase the depth of damage,
- drill holes and hammer dowels in them,
- wind the wire on the protruding dowel caps for reinforcement,
- cover the surface of the restored area twice with soil,
- attach the formwork to the side surface of the staircase so that its upper edge coincides in height with the step,
- prepare a mixture for repairing concrete steps and put it on the damaged area, leveling the open surface with a wide spatula,
- after an hour and a half, sprinkle the corrected place with dry cement and rub it with a trowel,
- after complete hardening of the solution, soak the surface twice with deep penetrating soil.
The latter operation is called ironing and helps to increase strength and reliability. Cement-sand mortar can be replaced with ready-made moisture-resistant mixtures, which are sold in stores, or with tiled glue.
Repair of surface chips and potholes
High-quality repair of surface damage to a stage can only be ensured if its depth exceeds 25 mm. In most cases, this condition is not fulfilled, and therefore the damaged area should be deepened with a chisel, hammer drill or impact drill. After that:
- remove concrete debris, debris and dirt from the cavity,
- with an interval of 30 minutes, apply 2 times deeply penetrating soil to the surface of the damaged area,
- prepare a cement-based mortar or mix the prepared moisture-proof mixture, which is sold in building materials stores,
- place the solution in the recess and level the surface with a spatula or trowel.
After about an hour, sprinkle the still moist surface with dry cement and rub it into the solution. This will significantly increase the strength and abrasion resistance of the surface layer. The addition of small stones to the cement mortar also improves the quality of the repair, but in this case, the depth of the repaired area should be at least 40 mm, and this condition may not be fulfilled in all sections of the step.
Possible options for facing stairs
Repair and restoration of concrete stairs can be done by lining it. For this, various materials are used, but the following are among the most popular:
- ceramic tile
- a natural stone,
- porcelain tile
A combination of different materials is possible. For example, the bottom and side of the stairs are lined with wood, and the steps are laid with tiles or laminate. In many cases, only steps are lined, and the rest of the flight of stairs is simply painted.
An important condition when choosing a material is anti-skid. Especially for steps that are on the street, where moisture gets on them and ice forms. Therefore, the surface should not be smooth or special anti-slip strips should be fixed to the cladding.
Antiskid rubber strip.
Facing the stairs can be done independently. All the materials necessary for this are now freely sold in building materials stores. When choosing a tile adhesive, it is necessary to read the area of its application and operating conditions. For street stairs, mixtures that retain their properties at a temperature of -40 ° C are used.
The laying of ceramic, clinker or stone tiles on the steps allows not only to repair and restore the integrity of the concrete staircase, but also completely transform its appearance, making it more beautiful. This is not a very difficult job and it is quite possible to do it yourself.
Before starting the facing, the surface of the steps must be leveled. To do this, use a special putty on stone or the ready-mix “Concrete Contact”. The prepared solution should be applied to the pre-primed surface using a wide spatula or trowel, and then level with a plaster grater. Tile cladding can be performed no earlier than 3 days later.
Masonry tiles start from the bottom step. First, the riser is laid and only after that lies the horizontal plane of the tread. This order allows you to block the end of the vertical tile and exclude its possible chipping under the weight pressure of a passing person. The thickness of the adhesive layer should not exceed 3 mm.
Tile cutting should be done with a special tile cutter. Using a grinder gives too much dust and does not provide a high-quality edge. The cut side on the risers should be down.
Entire tiles are laid along the edge of the tread, and the cut ones should adjoin the vertical rise. The thickness of the seams should be minimal, and the empty space must be carefully sealed with glue or special colored grout to completely eliminate the possibility of moisture entering under the coating.
The use of laminate for staircase lining is allowed only indoors. The wear resistance class of the material must be at least 32. The surface of the steps before sheathing must be leveled using putty or a ready-mix based on cement.
The laminate is fixed to the surface using tile adhesive, which is applied to the back of the panel. Layer thickness should not exceed 2 mm. To ensure a more reliable and durable connection, the butt grooves should also be smeared with adhesive solution.
It is recommended to close the corner joint and sidewalls with a decorative corner made of plastic or metal. This will create a single solid structure that will be protected from accidental mechanical stress.
Another, more complicated way, is to upholstery the steps with plywood and the subsequent laying of the laminate on it. In the same way, you can finish the concrete stairs with wood or plastic.
Now you know how to repair the concrete steps of the stairs yourself and what is required for this.
Formwork and porch steps
An ordinary board with a section of 200x50 millimeters was used as the base for the formwork for pouring, on which grooves were cut using a jigsaw for the bases of future steps, plus 25 millimeters for the formwork boards themselves. On the formwork, a board of 150x25 millimeters was used.
For pouring the base, the M-300 cement-sand mixture and fine gravel, up to 0.5 cm in size, were used in common people, the so-called seeds, in the ratio of one bucket of the mixture - four buckets of gravel.
When mixing the cement-sand mixture in a concrete mixer, pure cement was additionally added at the rate of about a third of a bucket of cement per bag of the mixture.
Laying of the mortar begins from the lower steps and during the filling of each subsequent step it was controlled so that the mortar from the upper step did not squeeze out the solution already poured into the formwork of the lower step. In order for the entire space to be poured evenly after filling each bucket, the solution is rammed several times with a dipstick, which I had made of three scraps of fittings tied around the handle from an old shovel.
Disassembly of the formwork was performed on the second day after the completion of pouring.
After which, for ten days he let it dry.
In order to be able to go into the house, he laid four boards on top of the flooded steps, filling them with a 40x60 millimeter bar perpendicular.
Laying tiles on the porch of the house
The adhesive for laying tiles was specially selected elastic, water-repellent and frost-resistant. Before laying the tiles, I marked the middle of the steps and laying began from the middle, since a whole number of tiles were not included in the step and the grinder had to cut the tiles to the edges. The steps turned out to be 16 centimeters high, and the risers - 20 centimeters, so the tiles also had to be cut to size.
Laying tiles on the porch of the house.
The tile had dimensions of 400x300x35 millimeters, but later, during laying, it was found that its thickness was normal on one edge and 30 or 25 millimeters on the other. I had to take into account this nuance.
Tile glued from bottom to top, first installing risers. When laying tiles, he used an 11 mm notched trowel. Glue was applied both to the steps themselves and to the tiles. The top of the porch itself was laid out with granite on the same glue.
The top of the porch has a slight bias from the center to the steps. The steps themselves are made with a slight slope outward so that water does not accumulate at the junction with the riser.
Tile grout was used elastic, frost-resistant and water-repellent. It was rubbed with a rubber spatula, and since the tile on the front side had small grooves, I was tortured to wipe it from the grout.
Laying pavers at the porch of the house
Photo of laying paving stones at the porch of the house.
Before laying the pavers, the old paving slabs were removed, and everything was cleaned to the concrete base. A plate was poured onto this base, onto which paving stones were subsequently glued. Seams in the cobblestones woke up with a cement-sand mixture and spilled with water.
Do-it-yourself repair of a concrete staircase and its steps, blind areas
Although the material in question is the repair of a concrete staircase with monolithic steps, using the tips described in it, you can also repair the concrete pavement with your own hands.
After the snow melts, its tricks appear and become visible to the naked eye, because even such durable material as concrete spares it with winter.
Unfinished monolithic steps may suffer from thaws and cold. Chips form at the corners and edges of the steps.
Sometimes they are so large that the armature is visible. We'll have to repair the stairs. But first you need to understand why it began to collapse.
Most likely, not enough strong concrete was used during its construction. In this case, no matter how you try, you will not save the design. A poor-quality structure, in which there is a lot of sand, and cement of a low grade, will crumble and wash out from year to year, and it is best to redo such a staircase.
If you still want to do cosmetic repairs, then you need to restore the chips.
To do this, brush off the dust and concrete chips from the steps and risers, vacuum them and install the formwork.
Then wet it and fill it with a composition based on cement of the M500 brand (3 buckets of sand, 6 buckets of rubble, a bucket of water per cement bucket).
To remove air bubbles from the solution, “pierce” it with a sharp wooden stick many times.
If the cement hardens in hot weather, wet it with water - this will help to prevent cracking. And if it rains, don’t worry - concrete will set faster from water.
Before the mortar hardens, go over it with a plaster grater to level the surface. After final hardening of concrete beat off the formwork and rub the roughness.
However, a very simple “makeup” is suitable if the damage is minor.
If the chip is large, you need to reinforce the restored fragment of the step. To do this, with a drill with a drill for concrete, we make holes for self-tapping screws (about 4 cm deep) on the damaged area.
We screw the screws into the concrete array so that they stick out at least 1 cm. Then vacuum the surface, install the formwork and pour the cement mortar.
Steps repaired with a simple cement mortar are not very reliable, because the coupling between old and new concrete is rather weak - if the staircase is used often, the structure may collapse again. To improve adhesion, it is recommended to use tile glue, and even better - a special composition for repairing concrete structures.
- When restoring steps that crumble so much that the fittings stick out, first of all, it is necessary to clean the metal from rust.
- 1-2. Builders recommend not to leave the unfinished monolithic blind area and stairs without protection for the winter - they can collapse from thaws and cold.
- For better adhesion of old and new concrete, treat the edges of chips and potholes with PVA glue. Apply glue with a brush and fill in a special repair composition.
Features repair concrete steps
Repair of concrete steps may be required in various cases. Despite the strength of this material, under intense loads, damage can even appear on it. Concrete steps are not insured against scratches, cracks and chips. If there is significant damage to the steps, the overall appearance of the stairs is significantly impaired, therefore, repair work is simply necessary.
If cracks, scratches or chips are formed, the concrete staircase is repaired.
The edges of the steps often break off after they drop something heavy on them. As a result, the appearance of the stairs is significantly deteriorating. It is quite possible to repair it even without special skills or experience in carrying out such work.
For repair, it is necessary to arm yourself with a drill with a special drill designed for working on concrete. With this tool, several holes are made in the chipped part. Screws must be screwed into the holes, so you need to choose the appropriate drill diameter. Hats of self-tapping screws should look in different directions, so you need to drill holes at different angles. The screwing depth of the screws should be such that the caps do not peek out from the surface of the future structure. They must be recessed 1 cm in a new concrete layer. Using self-tapping screws, in this case, reinforcement of the new concrete is performed.
The scheme of stairs made of concrete.
Around the cleaved area, it is required to make the formwork, for the manufacture of which ordinary straight boards are needed. The formwork needs to be firmly fixed so that it does not move. Before pouring the concrete solution, the formwork must be moistened with plenty of water. This will prevent the absorption of moisture from the solution into the wood. If this happens, the concrete will not be strong enough.
Next, a special cement-based mortar is prepared. To make the solution as strong as possible. It is recommended to add gravel or crushed stone to it. The finished solution is poured into the formwork on the site of the stage with damage. Concrete must be carefully rammed so that air bubbles come out of it. Сделать это можно при помощи простой деревянной палочки. Далее поверхность раствора остается хорошо выровнять и оставить застывать.
После застывания нового бетона опалубка снимается. Minor irregularities that may remain after this can be leveled with a spatula. If the structure of the patch is significantly different from the old concrete, then the surface should be brushed with metal to smooth the surfaces.
If there is no significant damage, but the surface of the steps has lost its attractiveness, then you can perform the lining to restore the appearance of concrete stairs.
To perform this work, the concrete surface must be leveled. This will require a special putty, which must be used regardless of the degree of deterioration of the stairs.
After applying putty, you need to give the composition a few days so that it completely dries out. Next, you can proceed to laying the tiles. When choosing a facing material, pay attention to where it will be used. On the stairs that are on the street, laying tiles with an absolutely smooth surface is categorically not recommended, since it will be dangerous to climb and descend such steps in frost and ice.
Thus, it is possible to improve the appearance and performance of a concrete staircase without much effort. To do this, you can use a special tile or restore the integrity of the surface with concrete mortar.
- Concrete floor
- Cement mortar
- What to choose
- Bath - 10
- Garage - 8
- House - 34
- Tracks - 11
- Staircase - 11
- Septic - 8
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Repair damaged concrete steps
Concrete stairs are a great purchase for both a small cottage and a large country house. With the relative cheapness of the consumables, they are fireproof, silent (unlike creaky wooden ones) and durable. But even such a staircase collapses from prolonged use, the steps are deformed and frayed. Damaged not only look ugly, but also can pose a health hazard. Therefore, in case of damage, it is necessary to repair or restore them as soon as possible.
At the first sign of damage and deformation, it is necessary to start repairing them as soon as possible.
Repair is carried out using the following tools:
- grinders with a nozzle on a stone, chisels,
- vacuum cleaner
- spatula and concrete building mixture.
You can make a concrete mixture with your own hands or use ready-made quick-hardening dry building mixes. Let us dwell on this moment in more detail.
To make a concrete mixture with your own hands you will need:
- river sand
- fine gravel gravel 5-20 mm (or marble chips).
The finished building mixture should quickly harden, be highly adhesion and not have shrinkage.
Cement is better to purchase no later than one to two weeks before the start of construction work, otherwise it hardens and deteriorates. If the quality of cement raises questions, a control batch should be done. Three parts of sand and six parts of gravel gravel are taken for one part of cement. The water used for mixing should be completely pure, not oily, without external impurities. Two parts of the mixture account for one part of water. If the solution is excessively thick, add more water. The resulting mixture should be sufficiently fluid and ductile, but not liquid.
If you do not plan to start a large-scale repair, but want to limit yourself to fixing concrete steps, it is better to stop at the finished building mixture. You should choose mixtures that are highly adhesive, harden quickly and guarantee no shrinkage. As in the case of concrete mix, pure water without third-party impurities is used for mixing. The finished mixture is suitable for use only within 3 hours after preparation.
When working with mixtures, do not neglect protective equipment: goggles, rubber gloves, respirators (or a gauze bandage). Work should be carried out in overalls made of thick fabric.
The formwork board must match the height and width of the damaged step.
Grinders make cuts in places of deformation. Then we take a chisel and we clean out the defect itself. We remove dust and dirt from the stairs with a vacuum cleaner. The next step is formwork.
The size of the formwork board should correspond to the height and width of the damaged step of the staircase. So that the construction mixture does not stick to it, the board is generously lubricated with vegetable oil. The formwork made should be securely fixed with spacers. Then lay the mixture, tamp well, rub and equalize with a spatula. After minimal drying of the mortar, the working edges are rounded with a thicknesser.
After final drying of the quick-hardening building mix, the steps of the repaired staircase are covered with mosaic unglazed tiles or wood of hard, non-abrasive varieties, such as ash, pine, larch.
Repairs are also carried out using epoxy or unsaturated polyester resins. A damaged or worn stage is cleaned of dust and dirt and a layer of resin is applied, and after complete drying, another layer of resin, this time with a filler. In this case, concrete mortar will play its role. The resin is leveled with a spatula and ground with an abrasive stone or sandpaper. In a day, the steps of your beautiful staircase treated in this way will be like new.
How to repair stair flights?
Repair of steps of flights of stairs is necessary for those structures that have served for many years. All work to solve this problem can be done with your own hands. For this, it is not necessary to possess the skills of a professional builder, but detailed instructions will be required.
Preparation of steps for repair work
The longer the staircase serves, the more often it needs repairs. Its complexity depends on what material this structure is made of, and on the amount of damage on it. The nature of the defects may be different:
The reasons for their occurrence can be very different, but for repair work they are insignificant. At the preparatory stage, the first thing to do is to conduct a thorough inspection of each structural element. Then you need to decide what type of repair is required. Several options are possible:
- restoration of internal or external corners,
- elimination of chips, cracks and cavities,
- increasing the strength of the steps (reinforcement),
Stairs can be metal, concrete, wooden, stone. Each type of structure uses its own materials and repair principles. The stairs in the apartment building are made of concrete and require systematic maintenance. Corresponding services perform 3 types of repairs for this purpose: major, current, and cosmetic.
How to repair concrete steps
Concrete - hygroscopic material. Despite the low level of hygroscopicity, under the influence of moisture, stable destruction of surfaces made of this material occurs. Therefore, stairs located on the street are most at risk of defects. They are constantly experiencing adverse environmental effects.
For concrete structures, the appearance of chips at the outer corners of steps is typical. Often you can find cracks and caverns of different sizes. If the damage is strong, it will require reinforcing the structure, providing increased strength. For high-quality performance of work, you will need a drawing in which all the parameters of the concrete structure are indicated.
The following materials and tools are used to carry out repairs:
- cement grade not lower than M400,
- sifted sand
- stones of medium fraction (20-40 mm) - gravel, crushed stone, pebbles,
- timber for the construction of formwork,
- reinforcing material (reinforcement with a cross section of 5-10 mm or steel bars),
- a welding machine for the manufacture of reinforcing mesh (if it is not possible to use this equipment, you will need a sufficient amount of thin wire necessary to bind together the elements of the reinforcing fabric),
- spatula or trowel,
- metal brush for concrete cleaning,
- primer to ensure optimal adhesion of the repair compound to the surface being repaired,
- narrow paint brush
- PVA glue or tile adhesive based on cement.
To restore the correct shape of the outer corner of the step, a metal corner is required. Steel or aluminum profiles can be used.
- Mix the binder solution in a ratio of 1: 3 (1 part cement and 3 parts sifted quarry sand).
- Brush the surface of concrete.
- If the size of the chips is at least 1/4 of the step, two reinforcing sheets are made, the length of which should correspond to the dimensions of the step, the width to the size of the chip. The reinforcing mesh should have a mesh of no more than 5x5 cm.
- A primer is applied to the concrete with a brush and is given as much time for drying as the instruction requires.
- If the chip is small, a mortar is applied with a trowel and a metal corner is pressed against it. Fix it in this position for 10-12 hours.
- If the chip size is significant, install reinforcing mesh in the form of an angle and connect them together using a knitting wire or welding machine.
- Mount the timber formwork and install it close to the chipped outer corner of the step. Reinforcing mesh is placed inside the formwork.
- A cement-sand mortar is poured, in which in this case a filler is added (gravel or crushed stone).
For redecorating stair flights using cement-sand mortar without filler.
In this case, the procedure will be as follows:
- perform surface cleaning
- apply a primer
- after drying, coat the place of cleavage, cavity or cracks with PVA glue,
- put a cement-sand mortar with a trowel or a spatula and level it.
Repair steps with marble chips
Flexible marble chips are an innovative material with which it is convenient and simple to restore the integrity of stair structures. It is produced in the form of panels made of marble chips with a cross section of not more than 3 mm. Such tiles have a spectacular appearance and a set of excellent characteristics:
- moisture resistant
- frost resistant
- successfully withstand heavy weight loads,
- have a high degree of wear resistance,
- do not fade when exposed to sunlight,
Repair of steps with the help of this material resembles facing work. But before laying the tiles, it is necessary to level the concrete surface, eliminating all its flaws. The use of flexible marble chips is possible only if the steps have small in size and shallow defects.
This video shows the steps repair process:
The concrete surface can be leveled with a cement-sand mortar or a self-leveling mixture. The tile is fixed using the liquid nails glue. If necessary, the finishing material is cut with a grinder and a circle for metal with a thickness of 2-2.5 mm. After such a repair, any staircase will look presentable.